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As, Pb and Hg are common environmental contaminants in low- and middle-income countries. We investigated the association between child toxicant exposure and growth and development and determined if this association was mitigated by Se concentration. Toxicant concentrations in fingernail samples, anthropometry and Bayley’s Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edition domains were assessed in 36-month-old children whose mothers had been part of a randomised controlled trial in rural Vietnam. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of toxicant exposure on clinical outcomes with adjustments for potential confounders and interaction with fingernail Se concentration. We analysed 658 children who had data for at least one physical or developmental outcome, and at least one toxicant measurement, and each of the covariates. Fingernail As concentration was negatively associated with language (estimate per 10 % increase in As: −0·19, 95 % CI: (–0·32, −0·05)). Pb was negatively associated with cognition (estimate per 10 % increase in Pb: −0·08 (–0·15, −0·02)), language (estimate per 10 % increase in Pb: −0·18 (–0·28, −0·10)) and motor skills (estimate per 10 % increase in Pb: −0·12 (–0·24, 0·00)). Hg was negatively associated with cognition (estimate per 10 % increase in Hg: −0·48, (–0·72, −0·23)) and language (estimate per 10 % increase in Hg −0·51, (–0·88, −0·13)) when Se concentration was set at zero in the model. As Se concentration increased, the negative associations between Hg and both cognition and language scores were attenuated. There was no association between toxicant concentration and growth. As, Pb and Hg concentrations in fingernails of 3-year-old children were associated with lower child development scores. The negative association between Hg and neurological development was reduced in magnitude with increasing Se concentration. Se status should be considered when assessing heavy metal toxicants in children and their impact on neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Research is needed on how technology can facilitate cow−calf contact (CCC). This research communication describes the behaviour of dairy cow−calf pairs in two cow-driven CCC-systems differing in cows' access to the calves through computer-controlled access gates (smart gates, SG). Specifically, cow traffic through SG when visiting their calves, allogrooming, suckling and cross-suckling, cows' eating and resting behaviour and finally vocal response to separation were assessed. After 3 d in an individual calving pen, pairs (n = 8) were moved to the CCC compartment with a cow area, a calf creep and a meeting area. During the next 31 d calves could suckle the cows whenever they visited the meeting area (suckling phase). Cows had free (group 1, n = 4 pairs) or restricted access to the calves based on previous activity in the automatic milking system (group 2, n = 4 pairs). SG's controlled cow traffic between the meeting area and the cow area, in which the cows could access resources such as feed, cubicles, and the automatic milking system. Following the suckling phase cow access into the meeting area was gradually decreased over 9 d (separation phase). During the suckling phase, cows paid frequent and short visits to their calves. Pairs spent in total approximately one h/d suckling and allogrooming. However, the duration and frequencies of these events varied among pairs and groups, as did the vocal response to separation. Restricted access − cows performed more (unrewarded) attempts to visit the calves who cross-suckled more. Collectively, free access to the calves may have been more intuitive and welfare friendly. Although a low sample size limits interpretation beyond description and enabling hypothesis formulation for future research, the results indicate that the cow is motivated to visit her calf, albeit through a SG, thus facilitating particular behaviours for which cow-calf pairs are highly motivated.
Decisions on the use of nature reflect the values and rights of individuals, communities and society at large. The values of nature are expressed through cultural norms, rules and legislation, and they can be elicited using a wide range of tools, including those of economics. None of the approaches to elicit peoples’ values are neutral. Unequal power relations influence valuation and decision-making and are at the core of most environmental conflicts. As actors in sustainability thinking, environmental scientists and practitioners are becoming more aware of their own posture, normative stance, responsibility and relative power in society. Based on a transdisciplinary workshop, our perspective paper provides a normative basis for this new community of scientists and practitioners engaged in the plural valuation of nature.
Experimental studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols. However, results from epidemiological investigations have been inconsistent and especially studies using biomarkers for assessment of polyphenol intake have been scant. We aimed to characterise the association between plasma concentrations of thirty-five polyphenol compounds and low-grade systemic inflammation state as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). A cross-sectional data analysis was performed based on 315 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort with available measurements of plasma polyphenols and hsCRP. In logistic regression analysis, the OR and 95 % CI of elevated serum hsCRP (>3 mg/l) were calculated within quartiles and per standard deviation higher level of plasma polyphenol concentrations. In a multivariable-adjusted model, the sum of plasma concentrations of all polyphenols measured (per standard deviation) was associated with 29 (95 % CI 50, 1) % lower odds of elevated hsCRP. In the class of flavonoids, daidzein was inversely associated with elevated hsCRP (OR 0·66, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·96). Among phenolic acids, statistically significant associations were observed for 3,5-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR 0·58, 95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR 0·63, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·87), ferulic acid (OR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·44, 0·96) and caffeic acid (OR 0·69, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·93). The odds of elevated hsCRP were significantly reduced for hydroxytyrosol (OR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·93). The present study showed that polyphenol biomarkers are associated with lower odds of elevated hsCRP. Whether diet rich in bioactive polyphenol compounds could be an effective strategy to prevent or modulate deleterious health effects of inflammation should be addressed by further well-powered longitudinal studies.
To better understand barriers and facilitators that contribute to antibiotic overuse in long-term care and to use this information to inform an evidence and theory-informed program.
Information on barriers and facilitators associated with the assessment and management of urinary tract infections were identified from a mixed-methods survey and from focus groups with stakeholders working in long-term care. Each barrier or facilitator was mapped to corresponding determinants of behavior change, as described by the theoretical domains framework (TDF). The Rx for Change database was used to identify strategies to address the key determinants of behavior change.
In total, 19 distinct barriers and facilitators were mapped to 8 domains from the TDF: knowledge, skills, environmental context and resources, professional role or identity, beliefs about consequences, social influences, emotions, and reinforcements. The assessment of barriers and facilitators informed the need for a multifaceted approach with the inclusion of strategies (1) to establish buy-in for the changes; (2) to align organizational policies and procedures; (3) to provide education and ongoing coaching support to staff; (4) to provide information and education to residents and families; (5) to establish process surveillance with feedback to staff; and (6) to deliver reminders.
The use of a stepped approach was valuable to ensure that locally relevant barriers and facilitators to practice change were addressed in the development of a regional program to help long-term care facilities minimize antibiotic prescribing for asymptomatic bacteriuria. This stepped approach provides considerable opportunity to advance the design and impact of antimicrobial stewardship programs.
To develop a risk score to predict probability of bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE).
Retrospective case-control study.
Two large community hospitals.
Hospitalized adults with Enterobacteriaceae BSI between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2015.
Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for ESBLE BSI. Point allocation in extended-spectrum β-lactamase prediction score (ESBL-PS) was based on regression coefficients.
Among 910 patients with Enterobacteriaceae BSI, 42 (4.6%) had ESBLE bloodstream isolates. Most ESBLE BSIs were community onset (33 of 42; 79%), and 25 (60%) were due to Escherichia coli. Independent risk factors for ESBLE BSI and point allocation in ESBL-PS included outpatient procedures within 1 month (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 8.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1–22.9; 1 point), prior infections or colonization with ESBLE within 12 months (aOR, 26.8; 95% CI, 7.0–108.2; 4 points), and number of prior courses of β-lactams and/or fluoroquinolones used within 3 months of BSI: 1 course (aOR, 6.3; 95% CI, 2.7–14.7; 1 point), ≥2 courses (aOR, 22.0; 95% CI, 8.6–57.1; 3 points). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the ESBL-PS model was 0.86. Patients with ESBL-PSs of 0, 1, 3, and 4 had estimated probabilities of ESBLE BSI of 0.7%, 5%, 24%, and 44%, respectively. Using ESBL-PS ≥3 to indicate high risk provided a negative predictive value of 97%.
ESBL-PS estimated patient-specific risk of ESBLE BSI with high discrimination. Incorporation of ESBL-PS with acute severity of illness may improve adequacy of empirical antimicrobial therapy and reduce carbapenem utilization.
Fish oil n-3 fatty acids (FA) have known health benefits. Microencapsulation stabilises and protects fish oil from oxidation, enabling its incorporation into foods. The aim of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of n-3 FA delivered as two microencapsulated fish oil-formulated powders or fish oil gel capsules (FOGC) taken with a flavoured milk in healthy participants. Formulation 1 (F1) composed of a heated mixture of milk protein–sugar as an encapsulant, and formulation 2 (F2) comprised a heated mixture of milk protein–sugar–resistant starch as an encapsulant. Participants consumed 4 g fish oil (approximately 1·0 g EPA and DHA equivalent per dose). Bioavailability was assessed acutely after ingestion of a single dose by measuring total plasma FA composition over a period of 48 h (n 14) using a randomised cross-over design, and over the short term for a period of 4 weeks using an unblinded parallel design (after daily supplementation) by measuring total plasma and erythrocyte FA composition at baseline and at 2 and 4 weeks (n 47). In the acute study, F1 greatly increased (% Δ) plasma EPA and total n-3 FA levels at 2 and 4 h and DHA levels at 4 h compared with FOGC. The time to reach maximal plasma values (Tmax) was shorter for F1 than for FOGC or F2. In the short-term study, increases in plasma and erythrocyte n-3 FA values were similar for all treatments and achieved an omega-3 index in the range of 5·8–6·3 % after 4 weeks. Overall, the results demonstrated human bioequivalence for microencapsulated fish oil powder compared with FOGC.
The heat-induced changes in pH, Ca activity and viscosity after heating at 90 °C for 10 min of five modified skim milks were studied as a function of the initial pH of the milks at 25 °C. The milks had (i) different ratios of casein : whey protein (0·03, 1·74, 3·97, 5·27 and 7·25), (ii) the same total solids concentration (9% w/w) and (iii) prior to the adjustment of the pH, similar values of pH (6·67–6·74), concentration of serum calcium, and calcium activity, suggesting that the sera have similar mineral composition. The total protein concentrations of the milks differ (2·8–4·0%, w/w). The pH decrease in situ upon heating from 25–90 °C was similar for all the modified skim milks with the same starting pH, suggesting that the pH changes to milk on heating were primarily mediated by the initial mineral composition of the serum and were unaffected by the casein : whey protein ratio or the total protein content of the milk. The heat-induced changes in pH and calcium activity were largely reversible on cooling. The two milks with the lowest ratios of casein to whey protein gelled on heating to 90 °C for 10 min and cooling to 25 °C when the pH was adjusted to pH = 6·2 prior to heating. The viscosities of all other milks with casein to whey protein ratio of 3·97, 5·27 and 7·25 and/or pH ≥6·7 prior to heating did not change significantly. The effect of casein : whey protein ratio and the pH are the dominant factors in controlling the susceptibility to thickening of the milks on heating in this study.
Reconstituted skim milks (10 % w/w total solids, pH 6·7–8·0) were ultrasonicated (20, 400 or 1600 kHz at a specific energy input of 286 kJ/kg) at a bulk milk temperature of <30 °C. Application of ultrasound to milk at different pH altered the assembly of the casein micelle in milk, with greater effects at higher pH and lower frequency. Low frequency ultrasound caused greater disruption of casein micelles causing release of protein from the micellar to the serum phase than high frequency. The released protein re-associated to form aggregates of smaller size but with surface charge similar to the casein micelles in the original milk. Ultrasound may be used as a physical intervention to alter the size of the micelles and the partitioning of caseins between the micellar and serum phases in milk. The altered protein equilibria induced by ultrasound treatment may have potential for the development of milk with novel functionality.
Phenolic acids are secondary plant metabolites that may have protective effects against oxidative stress, inflammation and cancer in experimental studies. To date, limited data exist on the quantitative intake of phenolic acids. We estimated the intake of phenolic acids and their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Phenolic acid intakes were estimated for 36 037 subjects aged 35–74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000 in ten European countries using a standardised 24 h recall software (EPIC-Soft), and their food sources were identified. Dietary data were linked to the Phenol-Explorer database, which contains data on forty-five aglycones of phenolic acids in 452 foods. The total phenolic acid intake was highest in Aarhus, Denmark (1265·5 and 980·7 mg/d in men and women, respectively), while the intake was lowest in Greece (213·2 and 158·6 mg/d in men and women, respectively). The hydroxycinnamic acid subclass was the main contributor to the total phenolic acid intake, accounting for 84·6–95·3 % of intake depending on the region. Hydroxybenzoic acids accounted for 4·6–14·4 %, hydroxyphenylacetic acids 0·1–0·8 % and hydroxyphenylpropanoic acids ≤ 0·1 % for all regions. An increasing south–north gradient of consumption was also found. Coffee was the main food source of phenolic acids and accounted for 55·3–80·7 % of the total phenolic acid intake, followed by fruits, vegetables and nuts. A high heterogeneity in phenolic acid intake was observed across the European countries in the EPIC cohort, which will allow further exploration of the associations with the risk of diseases.
The solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders was influenced by the method used for preparing the concentrate, drying conditions, and the type of dryer used. Increasing total solids of the ultrafiltered concentrates (23% total solids, TS) by diafiltration to 25% TS or evaporation to 31% TS decreased the solubility of MPC powders (80–83% protein, w/w dry basis), with ultrafiltration followed by evaporation to higher total solids having the greater detrimental effect on solubility. High shear treatment (homogenisation at 350/100 bar, microfluidisation at 800 bar or ultrasonication at 24 kHz, 600 watts) of ultrafiltered and diafiltered milk protein concentrates prior to spray drying increased the nitrogen solubility of MPC powders (82% protein, w/w dry basis). Of the treatments applied, microfluidisation was the most effective for increasing nitrogen solubility of MPC powders after manufacture and during storage. Manufacture of MPC powders (91% protein, w/w dry basis) prepared on two different pilot-scale dryers (single stage or two stage) from milk protein concentrates (20% TS) resulted in powders with different nitrogen solubility and an altered response to the effects of microfluidisation. Microfluidisation (400, 800 and 1200 bar) of the concentrate prior to drying resulted in increased long term solubility of MPC powders that were prepared on a single stage dryer but not those produced on a two stage spray dryer. This work demonstrates that microfluidisation can be used as a physical intervention for improving MPC powder solubility. Interactions between the method of preparation and treatment of concentrate prior to drying, the drying conditions and dryer type all influence MPC solubility characteristics.
A greater adherence to the traditional Mediterranean (MED) diet is associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases. This dietary pattern is based on higher consumption of plant products that are rich in flavonoids. We compared the total flavonoid dietary intakes, their food sources and various lifestyle factors between MED and non-MED countries participating in the EPIC study. Flavonoid intakes and their food sources for 35 628 subjects, aged 35–74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000, in twenty-six study centres were estimated using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-Soft®). An ad hoc food composition database on flavonoids was compiled using analytical data from the United States Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases. Moreover, it was expanded to include using recipes, estimations of missing values and flavonoid retention factors. No significant differences in total flavonoid mean intake between non-MED countries (373·7 mg/d) and MED countries (370·2 mg/d) were observed. In the non-MED region, the main contributors were proanthocyanidins (48·2 %) and flavan-3-ol monomers (24·9 %) and the principal food sources were tea (25·7 %) and fruits (32·8 %). In the MED region, proanthocyanidins (59·0 %) were by far the most abundant contributor and fruits (55·1 %), wines (16·7 %) and tea (6·8 %) were the main food sources. The present study shows similar results for total dietary flavonoid intakes, but significant differences in flavonoid class intakes, food sources and some characteristics between MED and non-MED countries. These differences should be considered in studies about the relationships between flavonoid intake and chronic diseases.
Epidemiological studies suggest health-protective effects of flavan-3-ols and their derived compounds on chronic diseases. The present study aimed to estimate dietary flavan-3-ol, proanthocyanidin (PA) and theaflavin intakes, their food sources and potential determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration cohort. Dietary data were collected using a standardised 24 h dietary recall software administered to 36 037 subjects aged 35–74 years. Dietary data were linked with a flavanoid food composition database compiled from the latest US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and expanded to include recipes, estimations and retention factors. Total flavan-3-ol intake was the highest in UK Health-conscious men (453·6 mg/d) and women of UK General population (377·6 mg/d), while the intake was the lowest in Greece (men: 160·5 mg/d; women: 124·8 mg/d). Monomer intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 213·5 mg/d; women: 178·6 mg/d) and the lowest in Greece (men: 26·6 mg/d in men; women: 20·7 mg/d). Theaflavin intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 29·3 mg/d; women: 25·3 mg/d) and close to zero in Greece and Spain. PA intake was the highest in Asturias (men: 455·2 mg/d) and San Sebastian (women: 253 mg/d), while being the lowest in Greece (men: 134·6 mg/d; women: 101·0 mg/d). Except for the UK, non-citrus fruits (apples/pears) were the highest contributors to the total flavan-3-ol intake. Tea was the main contributor of total flavan-3-ols in the UK. Flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intakes were significantly different among all assessed groups. This study showed heterogeneity in flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intake throughout the EPIC countries.
The effects of high pressure (HP) treatment (100–400 MPa at 10–60°C) on the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders were tested. The solubility, measured at 20°C, of fresh MPC powders made with no HP treatment was 66%. It decreased by 10% when stored for 6 weeks at ambient temperature (∼20°C) and continued to decrease to less than 50% of its initial solubility after 12 months of storage. Of the combinations of pressure and heat used, a pressure of 200 MPa at 40°C applied to the concentrate before spray drying was found to be the most beneficial for improved solubility of MPC powders. This combination of pressure/heat improved the initial cold water solubility to 85%. The solubility was maintained at this level after 6 weeks storage at ambient temperature and 85% of the initial solubility was preserved after 12 months. The improved solubility of MPC powders on manufacture and on storage are attributed to an altered surface composition arising from an increased concentration of non-micellar casein in the milk due to HP treatment prior to drying. The improved solubility of high protein powders (95% protein) made from blends of sodium caseinate and whey protein isolate compared with MPC powders (∼85% protein) made from ultrafiltered/diafiltered milk confirmed the detrimental role of micellar casein on solubility. The results suggest that increasing the non-micellar casein content by HP treatment of milk or use of blends of sodium caseinate and whey proteins are strategies that may be used to obtain high protein milk powders with enhanced solubility.
The pH and calcium activity of reconstituted skim milk solutions (9–21% w/w milk solids non-fat) on heating and after cooling were studied as a function of milk pH prior to heating (pH 6·2–7·2 at 25°C) and added calcium complexing agents (phosphate or EDTA). The pH decreased as the temperature was raised from 25 to 90°C and the magnitude of the pH decrease was greater with increase in initial pH at 25°C before heating or milk concentration. The pH decrease on heating from 25 to 90°C in skim milk solutions with added calcium complexing agents was lower than that of milk without the addition of these salts. The calcium activity decreased on heating from 25 to 60°C. The magnitude of the change decreased with increase in initial pH at 25°C before heating and milk concentration. The decrease in calcium activity on heating from 25 to 60°C for skim milk solutions with added calcium complexing agents was lower than that of milk solutions without the addition of calcium complexing agents. The changes in pH and calcium activity on heating milk were largely reversible after cooling the milk. The results suggested that the pH and calcium activity at high temperatures are a function of the milk composition. Knowledge of the initial pH prior to heating alone is not sufficient for predicting the changes that occur during heating.
This study investigates the potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to monitor glycation-induced changes in protein structure. Aqueous solutions of sodium caseinate and glucose (1:2 w/w, pH 6·7) were heated at 90°C for 0, 10, 20, 40 and 60 min. Evidence for caseinate glycation was obtained by mass spectrometry techniques (electrospray (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation (MALDI)). FTIR was able to discriminate between glycated and non-glycated sodium caseinate, when the data were analysed by multivariate statistical methods; principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA). The techniques used were complementary and provided different levels of information about the glycated samples.
To identify risk factors associated with the development of surgical-site infection (SSI) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA).
A case-control study.
A 1,100-bed, university-affiliated, tertiary-care teaching hospital.
Case-patients with SSI occurring up to 1 year following primary TKA performed between January 1999 and December 2001 were identified prospectively by infection control practitioners using National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System methods. Three control-patients were selected for each case-patient, matched by date of surgery. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relation of potential risk factors to the development of infection.
Twenty-two patients with infections (6 superficial and 16 deep) were identified. Infection rates per year were 0.95%, 1.07%, and 1.19% in 1999, 2000, and 2001, respectively. Logistic regression analysis identified two variables independently associated with the development of infection: the use of closed suction drainage (odds ratio [OR], 7.0; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 2.1-25.0; P = .0015) and increased international normalized ratio (INR) (OR, 2.4; CI95, 1.1-5.7; P = .035). Factors not statistically associated with the development of infection included age, NNIS System risk index score, presence of various comorbidities, surgeon, duration of procedure or tourniquet time, type of bone cement or prosthesis used, or receipt of blood product transfusions.
The use of closed suction drainage and a high postoperative INR were associated with the development of SSI following TKA. Avoiding the use of surgical drains and careful monitoring of anticoagulant prophylaxis in patients undergoing TKA should reduce the risk of infection.
Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF) was combined with Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS), to characterize changes in the structure of the colloidal particles of reconstituted skim milk of diameter >50 nm (aggregates of casein and calcium phosphate known as casein micelles) with the changes in partitioning (with the addition of salt) of calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and casein between the serum and colloidal phases of the milk. The number weighted particle size distributions are determined. These are well represented by a log-normal distribution. Methods are presented for estimating the relative contributions of scattering and absorbance to the SdFFF detector signal and for taking both into account when analysing SdFFF data. The values found for the effective density of the casein micelles were in good agreement with the literature and ranged from (1·06–1·08 g cm−3) according to the composition of micelles. The changes in the scattering intensity as determined by PCS correlated with the changes in the particle composition. Although the concentrations of colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) (1·1–3·5 g/kg milk) and micellar casein (18·1–27·2 g/kg milk) varied considerably only small changes in the size distribution of particles >50 nm diameter were observed except for milk to which 30 mmol Pi+10 mmol Ca/kg milk had been added where the particle size distribution shows a swelling of the particles consistent with a lower than expected value for the particle density. These observations suggest that the micelles have the ability to both lose (depleted micelles) and accommodate (enriched micelles) more casein, calcium and inorganic phosphate in their interior, thus confirming the model of the micelles which postulates an open structure allowing freedom of movement of casein and small ions.
We have investigated the effects of adding a range of mineral salts and
calcium-chelating agents on the distribution of casein and minerals between the non-pelleted and pelleted phases of milk obtained upon centrifugation at 78000 g for
90 min. Adding CaCl2 or mixtures of NaH2PO% and Na2HPO% to reconstituted skim
milk (90 g milk solids/kg) at pH 6·65 increased both pelleted casein and pelleted
calcium phosphate. Opposite effects were obtained by adding citrate or EDTA. The
change in pelleted calcium phosphate was not simply related to casein release from
the micelle. Upon adding 5 mmol EDTA/kg milk, 20% of the pelleted Ca, 22% of
the pelleted phosphate and 5% of the micellar casein were removed. Increasing the
concentration of EDTA to 10 mmol/kg milk decreased the pelleted Ca by 44% and
the pelleted phosphate by 46%, and caused 30%of the micellar casein to be released.
The effects of adding phosphate, citrate or EDTA at pH 6·65, followed by the
addition of CaCl2, demonstrated the reversibility of the dissolution and formation of
the micellar calcium phosphate. There were limits to this reversibility that were
related to the amount of colloidal calcium phosphate removed from the casein
micelles. Adding CaCl2 to milk containing [ges ] 20 mmol EDTA or [ges ] 30 mmol
citrate/kg milk did not result in complete reformation of casein micelles. Light-scattering experiments confirmed that the dissolution of moderate amounts of
colloidal calcium phosphate had little effect on micellar size and were reversible,
while the dissolution of larger amounts of colloidal calcium phosphate resulted in
large reductions in micellar size and was irreversible.