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We aimed to study supplement use in relation to dietary intake among pregnant women in Sweden, and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations among supplement and non-supplement users. Pregnant women were recruited at registration to antenatal care in 2013–2014. In third trimester, supplement use was collected using a questionnaire, and dietary intake was collected using a FFQ. The majority (64 %) of the 1044 women reported use of one or more supplements. Among all, 0–23 % reported dietary intakes above recommended intake (RI) of vitamin D, folate, Fe and Se. Median dietary intakes of thiamine (1·4 v. 1·3 mg P = 0·013), phosphorus (1482 v. 1440 mg P = 0·007), folate (327 v. 316 µg P = 0·02), Fe (12 v. 11·5 mg P = 0·009), Mg (361 v. 346 mg P < 0·001) and Zn (10·7 v. 10·4 mg P = 0·01) were higher among supplement users compared with non-users. Larger proportions of supplement users than non-users adhered to RI of dietary intakes of thiamine (42 % v. 35 % P = 0·04) and Mg (75 % v. 69 % P = 0·05). Among non-users, a minority had dietary intakes above RI for vitamin D (6 %), folate (10 %) and Fe (21 %). The majority (75–100 %) of supplement users had total intakes above RI for most nutrients. In conclusion, supplement use contributed substantially to reaching RI for vitamin D, folate and Fe. Supplement users had a higher dietary intake of several nutrients than non-users. This highlights that non-supplement users are at risk of inadequate nutrient intakes during pregnancy, suggesting a need for heightened awareness of nutritional adequacy for pregnant women.
To assess the associations between adherence to the Swedish dietary guidelines and all-cause mortality (i.e. assessing the index’ ability to predict health outcomes), as well as levels of dietary greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs).
A longitudinal study 1990–2016 within the population-based cohort Västerbotten Intervention Programme. Dietary data were based on FFQs. Diet quality was assessed by the Swedish Healthy Eating Index for Adults 2015 (SHEIA15), based on the 2015 Swedish dietary guidelines. Dietary GHGEs were estimated from life cycle assessment data including emissions from farm to industry gate. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI of all-cause mortality were evaluated with Cox proportional hazards regression, and differences in median GHGEs were tested between quintiles of SHEIA15 score using the Kruskal–Wallis one-way ANOVA test.
In total, 49 124 women and 47 651 men, aged 35–65 years.
Median follow-up times were 16·0 years for women and 14·7 years for men, during which time 3074 women and 4212 men died. A consistent trend of lower all-cause mortality HR for both sexes with higher SHEIA15 scores was demonstrated. For women, the all-cause mortality HR was 0·81 ((95 % CI 0·71, 0·92); P = 0·001) and for men 0·90 ((95 % CI 0·81, 0·996); P = 0·041) between the quintile with the highest SHEIA15 score compared with the quintile with the lowest SHEIA15 score. A consistent trend of lower estimated dietary GHGEs among both sexes with higher SHEIA15 scores was also found.
Adherence to Swedish dietary guidelines, estimated by SHEIA15, seems to promote longevity and reduce dietary climate impact.
Childbearing decreases HDL-cholesterol, potentially contributing to the increased risk of CVD in parous women. Large HDL particles (HDL-P) are associated with lower risk of CVD. In this secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial, we investigated the effects of 12-week dietary and exercise treatments on HDL-P subclass concentration, size and apoA1 in lactating women with overweight/obesity. At 10–14 weeks postpartum, 68 women with pre-pregnant BMI 25–35 kg/m2 were randomised to four groups using 2 × 2 factorial design: (1) dietary treatment for weight loss; (2) exercise treatment; (3) both treatments and (4) no treatment. Lipoprotein subclass profiling by NMR spectroscopy was performed in serum at randomisation and after 3 and 12 months, and the results analysed with two-way ANCOVA. Lipid concentrations decline naturally postpartum. At 3 months (5–6 months postpartum), both diet (P = 0·003) and exercise (P = 0·008) reduced small HDL-P concentration. Concurrently, exercise limited the decline in very large HDL-P (P = 0·002) and the effect was still significant at 12 months (15 months postpartum) (P = 0·041). At 12 months, diet limited the decline in very large HDL-P (P = 0·005), large HDL-P (P = 0·001) and apoA1 (P = 0·002) as well as HDL size (P = 0·002). The dietary treatment for weight loss and the exercise treatment both showed effects on HDL-P subclasses in lactating women with overweight and obesity possibly associated with lower CVD risk. The dietary treatment had more effects than the exercise treatment at 12 months, likely associated with a 10 % weight loss.
The objective was to investigate which predictive equations provide the best estimates of resting energy expenditure (REE) in postpartum women with overweight and obesity. Lactating women with overweight or obesity underwent REE measurement by indirect calorimetry, and fat-free mass (FFM) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at three postpartum stages. Predictive equations based on body weight and FFM were obtained from the literature. Performance of the predictive equations were analysed as the percentage of women whose REE was accurately predicted, defined as a predicted REE within ±10 % of measured REE. REE data were available for women at 10 weeks (n 71), 24 weeks (n 64) and 15 months (n 57) postpartum. Thirty-six predictive equations (twenty-five weight-based and eleven FFM-based) were validated. REE was accurately predicted in ≥80 % of women at all postpartum visits by six predictive equations (two weight-based and four FFM-based). The weight-based equation with the highest performance was that of Henry (weight, height, age 30–60 years) (HenryWH30−60), with an overall mean of 83 % accurate predictions. The HenryWH30−60 equation was highly suitable for predicting REE at all postpartum visits (irrespective of the women's actual age), and the performance was sustained across changes in weight and lactation status. No FFM-based equation was remarkably superior to HenryWH30−60 for the total postpartum period.
The study of the environmental impact of dietary patterns in relation to their nutrition quality and health impact is of recent development and great interest for both nutrition and environmental scientists. Preliminary research has been conducted on the potential application of nutrition and health indexes as reference units (i.e. functional units) in the life cycle assessment of foods. Although proposed methods to include nutrition and health aspects exist, more research is needed to increase the scientific quality and societal usefulness of such assessments.
Materials and Methods
SLF Healthy Diets is a 20-month project where 64 food items from the FFQ used in the population study “Västerbotten Intervention Programme” (VIP) will be characterized for their nutrition density and matched to the carbon footprint from life cycle assessment studies. Several nutrition density scores will be analyzed, among which the NRF9.3 score, a dietary-dependent NQI score, and a new nutrient index tailored for the Swedish population. Hazard ratios for total mortality will be estimated for 100.000 participants to the VIP study, and associations with reported intake of food products, nutrient density and environmental performance described.
Results and Discussion
Multiple results are expected from the project, among which a synthesis of the combined nutritional and environmental performance of the analyzed foods according to different methods, and hence the identification of the best nutritional index to apply in environmental studies. Additionally, the assessment in the VIP cohort of the associations between reported intake of food products and observed health outcomes will evaluate the ability of the suggested nutrition scores to predict the total mortality in the studied population.
The present project will allow for more robust quantification and communication of food products’ sustainability performance. Specifically, the project will: develop clear advice on which nutrition scores can best be used in LCA food studies; evaluate pros and cons of combined environmental, nutritional, and health metrics; validate nutrition and health metrics ability to predict health outcomes within a Swedish population-based cohort; investigate and propose how combined environmental, nutritional and health metrics can be implemented and used by food chain stakeholders.
The objective of this study was to examine climate impact from diet across background and sociodemographic characteristics in a population-based cohort in northern Sweden.
A cross-sectional study within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme. Dietary data from a 64-item food frequency questionnaire collected during 1996–2016 were used. Energy-adjusted greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) for all participants, expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents/day and 4184 kJ (1000 kcal), were estimated using data from life cycle analyses. Differences in background and sociodemographic characteristics were examined between participants with low and high GHGE from diet, respectively. The variables evaluated were age, BMI, physical activity, marital status, level of education, smoking, and residence.
Västerbotten county in northern Sweden.
In total, 46 893 women and 45 766 men aged 29–65 years.
Differences in GHGE from diet were found across the majority of examined variables. The strongest associations were found between GHGE from diet and age, BMI, education, and residence (all P < 0·001), with the highest GHGE from diet found among women and men who were younger, had a higher BMI, higher educational level, and lived in urban areas.
This study is one of the first to examine climate impact from diet across background and sociodemographic characteristics. The results show that climate impact from diet is associated with age, BMI, residence and educational level amongst men and women in Västerbotten, Sweden. These results define potential target populations where public health interventions addressing a move towards more climate-friendly food choices and reduced climate impact from diet could be most effective.
To examine timing of eating across ten European countries.
Cross-sectional analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study using standardized 24 h diet recalls collected during 1995–2000. Eleven predefined food consumption occasions were assessed during the recall interview. We present time of consumption of meals and snacks as well as the later:earlier energy intake ratio, with earlier and later intakes defined as 06.00–14.00 and 15.00–24.00 hours, respectively. Type III tests were used to examine associations of sociodemographic, lifestyle and health variables with timing of energy intake.
Ten Western European countries.
In total, 22 985 women and 13 035 men aged 35–74 years (n 36 020).
A south–north gradient was observed for timing of eating, with later consumption of meals and snacks in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries. However, the energy load was reversed, with the later:earlier energy intake ratio ranging from 0·68 (France) to 1·39 (Norway) among women, and from 0·71 (Greece) to 1·35 (the Netherlands) among men. Among women, country, age, education, marital status, smoking, day of recall and season were all independently associated with timing of energy intake (all P<0·05). Among men, the corresponding variables were country, age, education, smoking, physical activity, BMI and day of recall (all P<0·05).
We found pronounced differences in timing of eating across Europe, with later meal timetables but greater energy load earlier during the day in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries.
Sociodemographic factors have been associated with dietary supplement use among pregnant women but few data exist in a Swedish population. This study aimed to identify factors associated with overall supplement use as well as use of folic acid, vitamin D and n-3 in early pregnancy. Women in the first trimester of pregnancy were included at registration to the antenatal care in 2013–2014 (n 2109). Information regarding supplement use as well as sociodemographic and anthropometric data were obtained from questionnaires and medical records. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between sociodemographic variables and supplement use. A total of 78 % of the participants reported using at least one dietary supplement in the first trimester. Folic acid supplement use was reported by 74 %, vitamin D supplement use by 43 % and n-3 supplement use by <5 %. Use of any type of supplement in early pregnancy was related to gestational age, parity, birthplace, education and employment. Folic acid supplement use was related to gestational age, parity, birthplace, income, education and employment. Vitamin D supplement use was related to gestational age, birthplace and education. In conclusion, in the first trimester of pregnancy, folic acid supplements were used by three in four women, while vitamin D supplements were used by less than half of the women. The results of this study show a socioeconomic disparity between supplement users and non-users which may have a negative impact on the health of future generations.
During lactation, areal (a) and volumetric (v) bone mineral density (BMD) are known to temporarily decrease. Factors that affect skeletal changes postpartum are not fully elucidated. The aim was to study determinants of the previously observed changes in aBMD at lumbar spine, and cortical vBMD, microstructure and dimensions at ultra-distal tibia postpartum. Women (25–40 years) were studied longitudinally at 2 weeks (baseline) and 4 months (n 81), 12 months (n 79) and 18 months (n 58) postpartum. At each visit, blood samples were collected, body weight and height were measured and information about lactation habits, oestrogen contraceptives and physical activity was obtained. Ca intake was measured using 4-d food diaries at 4 months postpartum. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem MS. Skeletal changes were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Mean baseline BMI was 24·8 (sd 3·1) kg/m2. Median (quartiles 1–3) duration of total lactation was 8·1 (6·8–10·4) months. Longer duration of full lactation was associated with larger decreases of lumbar spine aBMD and tibia vBMD and microstructure. Higher baseline body weight was associated with smaller decreases in tibia vBMD and microstructure. Higher Ca intake was associated with smaller decreases in tibia cortical vBMD and thickness. Higher baseline 25OHD was only associated with larger decreases in lumbar spine aBMD. In conclusion, lactation and body weight were the main determinants of skeletal changes during the first 18 months postpartum. Ca intake and serum concentrations of 25OHD appear to have different associations with cortical and trabecular bone.
Two web-based dietary assessment tools have been developed for use in large-scale studies: the Riksmaten method (4-d food record) and MiniMeal-Q (food-frequency method). The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of these methods to capture energy intake against objectively measured total energy expenditure (TEE) with the doubly labelled water technique (TEEDLW), and to compare reported energy and macronutrient intake. This study was conducted within the pilot study of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS), which included 1111 randomly selected men and women aged 50–64 years from the Gothenburg general population. Of these, 200 were enrolled in the SCAPIS diet substudy. TEEDLW was measured in a subsample (n 40). Compared with TEEDLW, both methods underestimated energy intake: −2·5 (sd 2·9) MJ with the Riksmaten method; −2·3 (sd 3·6) MJ with MiniMeal-Q. Mean reporting accuracy was 80 and 82 %, respectively. The correlation between reported energy intake and TEEDLW was r 0·4 for the Riksmaten method (P < 0·05) and r 0·28 (non-significant) for MiniMeal-Q. Women reported similar average intake of energy and macronutrients in both methods whereas men reported higher intakes with the Riksmaten method. Energy-adjusted correlations ranged from 0·14 (polyunsaturated fat) to 0·77 (alcohol). Bland–Altman plots showed acceptable agreement for energy and energy-adjusted protein and carbohydrate intake, whereas the agreement for fat intake was poorer. According to energy intake data, both methods displayed similar precision on energy intake reporting. However, MiniMeal-Q was less successful in ranking individuals than the Riksmaten method. The development of methods to achieve limited under-reporting is a major challenge for future research.
Low vitamin D status has been associated with unfavourable health outcomes. Postpartum, it is speculated that maternal vitamin D status decreases due to transfer of vitamin D from mother to child through breast milk. A few studies have investigated changes in maternal vitamin D postpartum and possible determinants. Thus, the aims of the present study were to determine changes in serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) between 2 weeks and 12 months postpartum in Swedish women and to evaluate lactation and other determinants for changes in 25(OH)D concentration postpartum. In total, seventy-eight women were studied at 2 weeks, 4 months and 12 months postpartum. Data collection included measurements of weight and height as well as information about lactation, sun exposure, use of oestrogen contraceptives and physical activity level. Blood samples were collected and serum 25(OH)D levels were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem MS. Dietary intake of vitamin D was recorded using 4-d food diaries. For all the women studied, mean serum 25(OH)D did not change between 2 weeks and 12 months postpartum (67 (sd 23) v. 67 (sd 19) nmol/l). No association was found between lactation and changes in serum 25(OH)D concentration postpartum. Significant determinants for postpartum changes in 25(OH)D concentration were use of vitamin D supplements (P=0·003), use of oestrogen contraceptives (P=0·013) and season (P=0·005). In conclusion, no changes were observed in 25(OH)D concentrations during the 1st year postpartum in these women and no association was found between lactation and changes in 25(OH)D concentration postpartum. The main determinants for the variation in changes in 25(OH)D concentrations postpartum were use of vitamin D supplements, use of oestrogen contraceptives and season.
Pattern analysis has emerged as a tool to depict the role of multiple nutrients/foods in relation to health outcomes. The present study aimed at extracting nutrient patterns with respect to breast cancer (BC) aetiology.
Nutrient patterns were derived with treelet transform (TT) and related to BC risk. TT was applied to twenty-three log-transformed nutrient densities from dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals computed using Cox proportional hazards models quantified the association between quintiles of nutrient pattern scores and risk of overall BC, and by hormonal receptor and menopausal status. Principal component analysis was applied for comparison.
The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
Women (n 334 850) from the EPIC study.
The first TT component (TC1) highlighted a pattern rich in nutrients found in animal foods loading on cholesterol, protein, retinol, vitamins B12 and D, while the second TT component (TC2) reflected a diet rich in β-carotene, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamins C and B6, fibre, Fe, Ca, K, Mg, P and folate. While TC1 was not associated with BC risk, TC2 was inversely associated with BC risk overall (HRQ5 v. Q1=0·89, 95 % CI 0·83, 0·95, Ptrend<0·01) and showed a significantly lower risk in oestrogen receptor-positive (HRQ5 v. Q1=0·89, 95 % CI 0·81, 0·98, Ptrend=0·02) and progesterone receptor-positive tumours (HRQ5 v. Q1=0·87, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·98, Ptrend<0·01).
TT produces readily interpretable sparse components explaining similar amounts of variation as principal component analysis. Our results suggest that participants with a nutrient pattern high in micronutrients found in vegetables, fruits and cereals had a lower risk of BC.
We investigated the association between full breast-feeding up to 6 months as well as partial breast-feeding after 6 months and maternal weight retention at 6, 18 and 36 months after delivery in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.
Cohort study. Information on exposure and outcome was collected by questionnaire.
Women at 6 months (n 49 676), 18 months (n 27 187) and 36 months (n 17 343) postpartum.
Longer duration of full breast-feeding as well as partial breast-feeding was significantly related to lower weight retention at 6 months. At 18 months full breast-feeding (0–6 months) and partial breast-feeding for 12–18 months were significantly related to lower weight retention. At 36 months only full breast-feeding (0–6 months) was significantly related to lower weight retention. For each additional month of full breast-feeding, maternal weight was lowered by 0·50 kg/month at 6 months, 0·10 kg/month at 18 months and 0·14 kg/month at 36 months (adjusted for pre-pregnant BMI, pregnancy weight gain, age and parity). Partial breast-feeding resulted in 0·25 kg/month lower maternal weight at 6 months. Interactions were found between household income and full breast-feeding in relation to weight retention at 6, 18 and 36 months, indicating most benefit among women with low income.
The present study supports the hypothesis that full breast-feeding contributes to lower postpartum weight retention and shows that the effect is maintained for as long as 3 years postpartum.
Low maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy may have negative consequences for both mother and child. There are few studies of vitamin D status and its determinants in pregnant women living at northern latitudes. Thus, the present study investigates vitamin D status and its determinants during the third trimester of women living in Sweden (latitudes 57–58°N). A total of ninety-five fair-skinned pregnant women had blood taken between gestational weeks 35 and 37. The study included a 4 d food diary and questionnaires on dietary intake, supplement use, sun exposure, skin type, travels to southern latitudes and measure of BMI. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was analysed using the chemiluminescence immunoassay. In the third trimester of pregnancy, mean serum concentration of 25(OH)D was 47·4 (sd 18·1) nmol/l (range 10–93 nmol/l). In total, 65 % of women had serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l and 17 % < 30 nmol/l. During the winter, 85 % of the pregnant women had serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l and 28 % < 30 nmol/l. The main determinants of vitamin D status were as follows: season; use of vitamin D supplements; travels to southern latitudes. Together, these explained 51 % of the variation in 25(OH)D. In conclusion, during the winter, the majority of fair-skinned pregnant women had serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l in their third trimester and more than every fourth woman < 30 nmol/l. Higher vitamin D intake may therefore be needed during the winter for fair-skinned pregnant women at northern latitudes to avoid vitamin D deficiency.
A greater adherence to the traditional Mediterranean (MED) diet is associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases. This dietary pattern is based on higher consumption of plant products that are rich in flavonoids. We compared the total flavonoid dietary intakes, their food sources and various lifestyle factors between MED and non-MED countries participating in the EPIC study. Flavonoid intakes and their food sources for 35 628 subjects, aged 35–74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000, in twenty-six study centres were estimated using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-Soft®). An ad hoc food composition database on flavonoids was compiled using analytical data from the United States Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases. Moreover, it was expanded to include using recipes, estimations of missing values and flavonoid retention factors. No significant differences in total flavonoid mean intake between non-MED countries (373·7 mg/d) and MED countries (370·2 mg/d) were observed. In the non-MED region, the main contributors were proanthocyanidins (48·2 %) and flavan-3-ol monomers (24·9 %) and the principal food sources were tea (25·7 %) and fruits (32·8 %). In the MED region, proanthocyanidins (59·0 %) were by far the most abundant contributor and fruits (55·1 %), wines (16·7 %) and tea (6·8 %) were the main food sources. The present study shows similar results for total dietary flavonoid intakes, but significant differences in flavonoid class intakes, food sources and some characteristics between MED and non-MED countries. These differences should be considered in studies about the relationships between flavonoid intake and chronic diseases.
Dietary patterns capture the overall diet and thereby provide information on how nutrients are consumed in combinations, and have been suggested to be a better method than studying single nutrients. The present study explored the relationship between dietary patterns at baseline and incidence of obesity at 10-year follow-up in women.
A longitudinal study using baseline measurements from 1992–1996, including food intake, medication, heredity, socio-economic status, lifestyle and measured body composition, and follow-up data collected in 2002–2006 including measured body composition.
Data from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) in Sweden.
A total of 6545 initially non-obese women aged 30–50 years.
Among women reporting plausible energy intakes, the ‘Fruit and vegetables cluster’ predicted the highest incidence of obesity (OR = 1·76, 95 % CI 1·11, 2·76; P = 0·015) compared with women in the other food pattern groups combined. When adjusting for metabolic factors and BMI at baseline, the risk for obesity in the ‘Fruit and vegetables cluster’ was attenuated to non-significance. In contrast, high intake of fruit per se was associated with a decreased risk of developing obesity (OR = 0·69, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·91; P = 0·010).
Dietary pattern groups identified by cluster analysis are likely to reflect characteristics in addition to diet, including lifestyle, previous and current health status and risk factors for future disease, whereas intake of fruit per se was a stable indicator and less affected by baseline characteristics. These results underscore the need for complementary methods in understanding diet–disease relationships.
To evaluate plant sterol intake estimated with the eighty-four-item Northern Sweden FFQ against repeated 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) as the reference method.
Randomly recruited participants from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) responded to an FFQ (FFQ1). Over the subsequent 12 months, ten repeated 24-HDR were carried out. After this, a second FFQ (FFQ2) was completed.
Västerbotten county, northern Sweden.
Ninety-six men and ninety-nine women.
The Pearson correlation coefficient for absolute total plant sterol intake estimated with FFQ1 and 24-HDR was 0·58 and 0·55 for the men and women, respectively. Cross-classification of participants into quartiles of absolute plant sterol intake estimated with FFQ1 and 24-HDR showed that 90 % of the men and 83 % of the women were classified into the same or an adjacent quartile. For energy-adjusted plant sterol intake, 71 % of the men and 74 % of the women were classified into the same or an adjacent quartile. The agreement for cross-classification of participants into quartiles between FFQ1 and FFQ2 was good for both absolute and energy-adjusted plant sterol intake.
The FFQ is able to capture absolute plant sterol intake to the same extent as other nutrients, and to rank individuals according to both their absolute and energy-adjusted plant sterol intake. The reproducibility of the FFQ was good, suggesting that the method is reliable. This makes it possible to use plant sterol data from the FFQ in large-scale studies of the association between plant sterol intake and disease.
Rye bran contains a high content not only of dietary fibre, but also of plant lignans and other bioactive compounds in the so-called dietary fibre complex. Blood concentrations of lignans such as enterolactone have been used as biomarkers of intake of lignan-rich plant food. At present, evidence from studies in human subjects does not warrant the conclusion that rye, whole grains or phyto-oestrogens protect against cancer. Some studies, however, have pointed in that direction, especially in relation to cancers of the upper digestive tract. A number of prospective epidemiological studies have clearly shown a protective effect of whole-grain cereals against myocardial infarctions. A corresponding protective effect against diabetes and ischaemic stroke (brain infarct) has also been demonstrated. It seems reasonable to assume that these protective effects are associated with one or more factors in the dietary fibre complex.
To evaluate changes over 1 year in weight and body mass index (BMI) among a population-based sample of non-pregnant women in Indonesia and to identify risk factors for developing under- and overnutrition.
Cross-sectional studies in 1996 and 1997 in the same population.
Purworejo District, central Java, Indonesia.
Non-pregnant women (n = 4132) aged 15–49 years of age who participated in both 1996 and 1997. Based on BMI, women were classified as having chronic energy deficiency (CED), and as being either of normal weight or obese.
The mean height of the women was below the fifth percentile of international standards. In 1996, 16.2% had CED, 72.2% were normal and 11.6% were obese. In 1997, the corresponding figures were 14.4%, 71.2% and 14.3%, respectively, revealing a significant mean increase in weight and BMI. Among women classified as normal in 1996, 3.0% developed CED in 1997. Significant risk factors for developing CED were experiences of child deaths and non-use of contraceptives. Among women classified as normal in 1996, 5.3% developed obesity in 1997. Here, significant risk factors included most indicators of wealth as well as occupation.
The results should be important for future efforts to prevent CED and obesity in the general population; conditions which are both associated with health risks.
To evaluate the ratio of reported energy intake to basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR) among pregnant Indonesian women, as well as identifying risk factors for being an underreporter.
Longitudinal study of dietary intake, using six repeated 24-hour diet recalls each trimester. Basal metabolic rate was estimated from body weight and physical activity from occupation. The lower 95% confidence interval for plausible EI/BMR was calculated and the proportion of underreporters estimated. Risk factors for being an underreporter were assessed in multivariate logistic regression analyses.
Purworejo District, central Java, Indonesia.
Pregnant women (n = 490).
For the three trimesters, EI/BMR ratio was 1.33±0.48, 1.53±0.43 and 1.52±0.40 (mean±standard deviation), respectively. The proportion of underreporters was 29.7%, 16.2% and 17.6%. Characteristics significantly associated with underreporting in at least one trimester included high body mass index and low education.
Levels of underreporting were low among the pregnant Indonesian women during the second and third trimesters. The low EI/BMR ratio during the first trimester likely reflects a true low intake due to nausea, rather than underreporting. Risk factors for being an underreporter included those known from developed countries, i.e. obesity and low education.
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