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Reducing specific contact resistivity of the silicide to silicon interface is advantageous to achieve high planar density and high drive current FET devices. Measuring the differential resistivities at different low voltage bias conditions of four terminal Kelvin test structures with a range of contact sizes has proven particularly effective in characterizing the linearity behavior and specific contact resistivity. This study shows that adding laser activation annealing for an n+ doped silicon contacted by a standard NiPt silicide is found to significantly improve the contact electrical properties. Initial results with only rapid thermal anneal activation show a size dependence of the contact resistivity with non-linear behavior exhibiting maximum resistance at zero bias, and contact resistivities ranging from 4×10-8 Ω-cm2 to 4×10-7 Ω-cm2. Adding laser anneal after the rapid thermal anneal gives ohmic behavior, for contact down to 50nm in size, with a specific contact resistivity of 1×10-8 Ω-cm2. The metal-to-silicide contact resistance was measured separately using a novel test structure and it was confirmed to be negligible. We describe our device structure, our experimental methodology, and the implications of our results for future devices.
Results are presented from a systematic investigation to design and optimize a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for manganese-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Mn) thin films for electroluminescent (EL) device applications. The CVD process used diethylzinc (DEZ), di-π-cyclopentadienyl manganese (CPMn), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as co-reactants and hydrogen (H2) as carrier gas. A design of experiments approach was used to derive functionality curves for the dependence of ZnS:Mn film properties on substrate temperature and flow rates (partial pressures) of DEZ, CPMn, H2S, and H2. Film physical, chemical, structural, and optical properties were examined using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nuclear-reaction analysis, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. EL measurements were carried out on ZnS:Mn-based dielectric–sulfur–dielectric stacks incorporated into alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent devices. An optimized process window was established for the formation of films with predominantly (0 0 2) orientation, grain size larger than 0.2 μm, and Mn dopant level approximately 0.5 at.%. A brightness of 407 cd/m2 (119 fL) and efficiency of 1.6 lm/W were obtained, as measured at 40 V above threshold voltage and 60 Hz frequency.
Thin film electroluminescent devices employing zinc sulfide doped with manganese are extensively used for applications in which the weight, brightness and mechanical robustness requirements preclude the use of other types of displays such as cathode ray tubes or liquid crystal displays. The physical, optical and electrical properties of phosphors such as ZnS:Mn can often depend strongly on microstructure, which in turn depends on the growth and processing of the film. For this study, ZnS:Mn layers were fabricated by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) in the 250°-500°C range on an Al2TiO/ In2SnO5 /glass stack. Selected samples were then subjected to a post-deposition anneal in H2S/Ar at 700°C for up to 4 hours. The microstructure of the ZnS:Mn films was examined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). For all growth and annealing conditions, the films consisted of columnar grains whose column axis was parallel to the growth direction, and which widened laterally through the thickness of the films. For the as-deposited films, the crystal structure was found to be predominantly 2H structure, with the 8H polytype being identified in the low-temperature ZnS:Mn films. The 700°C post-deposition annealing was found to initiate a solid state transformation to the cubic (3C) ZnS crystal structure. All films contained high densities of stacking faults and microtwins, whose role in the 2H-3C transformation is discussed. Also discussed are initial Ultrasonic Force Microscopy (UFM) results which suggest a correlation between the defect microstructure and the elastic response of the material.
Zinc sulfide doped with manganese is extensively used for thin film electroluminescent device applications. In order to assess the key material and process challenges, ZnS:Mn layers were fabricated by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition in the 250°-500°C range on an AlTiO/InSnO/glass stack. The microstructure of the ZnS:Mn films was examined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) as part of a larger study which fully characterizes these films by a variety of structural and chemical characterization techniques, including Rutherford Backscattering, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. For all the growth conditions, the films were found to be polycrystalline having predominantly 2H hexagonal ZnS structure. The ZnS grains are found to grow columnar as the film thickness increases, also widening in the direction parallel to the substrate surface and reaching the 100 - 200 nm average lateral size at the 650 nm film thickness. The presence of the 8H ZnS polytype was detected in the low-temperature ZnS:Mn films by TEM selected area electron diffraction and confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Dark field TEM imaging correlated this 8H ring with very small (∼2.5 nm) grains present throughout the low temperature film with a slightly higher density at the film/substrate interface. The 700°C post-deposition annealing was found to initiate a solid state transformation to the cubic (3C) ZnS crystal structure, and resulted in an average grain size of ∼250 nm at the surface of the annealed film.
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