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Patients with Fontan failure are high-risk candidates for heart transplantation and other advanced therapies. Understanding the outcomes following initial heart failure consultation can help define appropriate timing of referral for advanced heart failure care.
This is a survey study of heart failure providers seeing any Fontan patient for initial heart failure care. Part 1 of the survey captured data on clinical characteristics at the time of heart failure consultation, and Part 2, completed 30 days later, captured outcomes (death, transplant evaluation outcome, and other interventions). Patients were classified as “too late” (death or declined for transplant due to being too sick) and/or “care escalation” (ventricular assist device implanted, inotrope initiated, and/or listed for transplant), within 30 days. “Late referral” was defined as those referred too late and/or had care escalation.
Between 7/2020 and 7/2022, 77 Fontan patients (52% inpatient) had an initial heart failure consultation. Ten per cent were referred too late (6 were too sick for heart transplantation with one subsequent death, and two others died without heart transplantation evaluation, within 30 days), and 36% had care escalation (21 listed ± 5 ventricular assist device implanted ± 6 inotrope initiated). Overall, 42% were late referrals. Heart failure consultation < 1 year after Fontan surgery was strongly associated with late referral (OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.8–21.5, p=0.004).
Over 40% of Fontan patients seen for an initial heart failure consultation were late referrals, with 10% dying or being declined for transplant within a month of consultation. Earlier referral, particularly for those with heart failure soon after Fontan surgery, should be encouraged.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating rare disease that affects individuals regardless of ethnicity, gender, and age. The first-approved disease-modifying therapy for SMA, nusinursen, was approved by Health Canada, as well as by American and European regulatory agencies following positive clinical trial outcomes. The trials were conducted in a narrow pediatric population defined by age, severity, and genotype. Broad approval of therapy necessitates close follow-up of potential rare adverse events and effectiveness in the larger real-world population.
The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR) undertook an iterative multi-stakeholder process to expand the existing SMA dataset to capture items relevant to patient outcomes in a post-marketing environment. The CNDR SMA expanded registry is a longitudinal, prospective, observational study of patients with SMA in Canada designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of novel therapies and provide practical information unattainable in trials.
The consensus expanded dataset includes items that address therapy effectiveness and safety and is collected in a multicenter, prospective, observational study, including SMA patients regardless of therapeutic status. The expanded dataset is aligned with global datasets to facilitate collaboration. Additionally, consensus dataset development aimed to standardize appropriate outcome measures across the network and broader Canadian community. Prospective outcome studies, data use, and analyses are independent of the funding partner.
Prospective outcome data collected will provide results on safety and effectiveness in a post-therapy approval era. These data are essential to inform improvements in care and access to therapy for all SMA patients.
We carried out a population-based study of dystrophin mutations in patients followed by members of the Canadian Paediatric Neuromuscular Group (CPNG) over a ten-year period.
We aimed to describe the changes in diagnostic testing for dystrophinopathy and to determine the frequency of dystrophin mutations from 2000 to 2009.
De-identified data containing the clinical phenotypes, diagnostic methods, and mutational reports from dystrophinopathy patients followed by CPNG centres from January 2000 to December 2009 were analyzed using descriptive statistics.
773 patients had a confirmed diagnosis of dystrophinopathy based on genetic testing (97%), muscle biopsy (2%), or family history (1%). 573 (74%) had complete deletion/duplication analysis of all 79 exons or whole gene sequencing, resulting in 366 (64%) deletions, 64 (11%) duplications, and 143 (25%) point mutations. The percentage of patients who were diagnosed using currently accepted genetic testing methods varied across Canada, with a mean of 63% (SD 23). 246 (43%) mutations involved exons 45 to 53. The top ten deletions (n=147, 26%) were exons 45-47, 45-48, 45, 45-50, 45-55, 51, 45-49, 45-52, 49-50, and 46-47. 169 (29%) mutations involved exons 2 to 20. The most common duplications (n=29, 5.1%) were exons 2, 2-7, 2-17, 3-7, 8-11, 10, 10-11, and 12.
This is the most comprehensive report of dystrophin mutations in Canada. Consensus guidelines regarding the diagnostic approach to dystrophinopathy will hopefully reduce the geographical variation in mutation detection rates in the coming decade.
Patient registries represent an important method of organizing “real world” patient information for clinical and research purposes. Registries can facilitate clinical trial planning and recruitment and are particularly useful in this regard for uncommon and rare diseases. Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) are individually rare but in aggregate have a significant prevalence. In Canada, information on NMDs is lacking. Barriers to performing Canadian multicentre NMD research exist which can be overcome by a comprehensive and collaborative NMD registry.
We describe the objectives, design, feasibility and initial recruitment results for the Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR).
The CNDR is a clinic-based registry which launched nationally in June 2011, incorporates paediatric and adult neuromuscular clinics in British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and, as of December 2012, has recruited 1161 patients from 12 provinces and territories. Complete medical datasets have been captured on 460 “index disease” patients. Another 618 “non-index” patients have been recruited with capture of physician-confirmed diagnosis and contact information. We have demonstrated the feasibility of blended clinic and central office-based recruitment. “Index disease” patients recruited at the time of writing include 253 with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy, 161 with myotonic dystrophy, and 71 with ALS.
The CNDR is a new nationwide registry of patients with NMDs that represents an important advance in Canadian neuromuscular disease research capacity. It provides an innovative platform for organizing patient information to facilitate clinical research and to expedite translation of recent laboratory findings into human studies.
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