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The chapter surveys repetitions and reduplications in Italian, from the segmental to the discourse level. Italian has reduplicative structures in ideophones, onomatopoeic formations, child language, and baby talk; segment repetition is used as an expressive device in commercials and product names; reduplication is used as a lexeme formation device in Verb-Verb compounds such as fuggifuggi ‘stampede, lit. run away run away’, and as a means of intensification of adjectives and adverbs; some sequences of two nouns have lexicalized with adjectival or adverbial meaning; contrastive focus reduplication is also attested in Italian. Discourse markers are often reduplicated; several cases of repetition of imperatives in discourse have constructionalized, giving rise to converbs with concessive or hypothetical meanings or used as antecedents of consecutive clauses; noun reiteration in discourse can be used to indicate frequency of occurrence of entities and events. It is argued that no clear dividing line can be drawn between pragmatic or syntactic repetition and grammatical or morphological reduplication, since grammaticalization of discourse repetition in diachrony often occurs.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the risk of an early syphilis diagnosis following a chlamydia, gonorrhea, or HIV diagnosis, and to determine differences by race, repeat infection, diagnosing provider and STI/HIV risk behavior among cisgender women in Baltimore, MD. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Public health surveillance data from 2009-2021 was used to examine the overall incidence of syphilis infections among cisgender women ages 13-50 diagnosed with a reportable STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or HIV) and the percentage of total infections that were early infections (primary, secondary, or early latent syphilis) in Baltimore City. Data were collected on age, race, diagnosing location (i.e., STI clinic, private provider, etc.), preceding STI diagnoses, and sexual risk behaviors. STI-specific cumulative incidence and incidence rate ratios were used to compare syphilis diagnoses among Black vs. white women, women with repeat STI diagnoses vs. one STI diagnosis, women diagnosed at a public vs. private clinic, and commercial sex workers and substance users vs. those not reporting these risk behaviors. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Based on recent surveillance data, we expect approximately 79,000 chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV diagnoses among cisgender women between 2009-2021. We hypothesize that 3% of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV diagnoses among cisgender women will be followed by a syphilis diagnosis within the study period. Extrapolating from previous studies of early syphilis in men who have sex with men in Baltimore, we expect the rate of syphilis diagnosis following STI diagnosis will be higher in Black vs. white women, women with a prior gonorrhea or HIV diagnosis vs. chlamydia diagnosis, women with repeat STI diagnoses vs. one STI diagnosis, women diagnosed at public STI clinics vs. those diagnosed by private providers, and women reporting commercial sex work and/or substance use vs. those not reporting these risk behaviors. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Local healthcare providers should offer syphilis screening to any woman diagnosed with a chlamydia, gonorrhea, or HIV infection. The higher rates of early syphilis diagnosis among women with repeat STI diagnoses or a prior gonorrhea or HIV diagnosis suggests regular screening is critical in these populations.
This chapter uses data from a range of Romance languages to illustrate the different definitions of the notion of suppletion in the linguistic literature, and to offer a typology of suppletion (notable the difference between ‘incursive’ and phonologically induced suppletion). Suppletion may be most usefully viewed simply as an extreme contrast between unity of meaning, on the one hand, and disunity of the forms expressing that meaning, on the other. The typology and distribution of Romance suppletions is described, for example, from the numeral system, from the system of marking comparatives in adjectives, from the inflexional morphology of personal pronouns, from the inflexional morphology or verbs, nouns, and adjectives. While the Romance languages provide cross-linguistically typical illustrations of suppletion in its different manifestations, the Romance data are particularly thought-provoking with regard to, among other things, (i) the particular role of synonymy between lexemes in determining the emergence of incursive suppletion in diachrony; (ii) the role of existing abstract patterns of alternation in providing ‘templates’ for the paradigmatic distribution of suppletive alternants; and (iii) the role of phonological resemblance as a determinant of incursive suppletion.
Homeless and precariously housed individuals experience a high burden of comorbid illnesses, and excess mortality. Cross-sectional studies report a high rate of cognitive impairment. Long-term trajectories have not been well investigated in this group.
To longitudinally assess risks for premature and/or accelerated cognitive ageing, and the relationship with early mortality in homeless and precariously housed people.
This is a 9-year community-based study of 375 homeless and precariously housed individuals from Vancouver, Canada. Annual cognitive testing assessed verbal learning and memory, and inhibitory control. Linear mixed-effects models examined associations between clinical risk factors (traumatic brain injury, psychotic disorders, viral exposure, alcohol dependence) and cognitive change over 9 years. Cox regression models examined the association between cognition and mortality.
Traumatic brain injury and alcohol dependence were associated with decline in verbal memory. Inhibitory control declined, independent of risk factors and to a greater extent in those who died during the study. Better inhibitory control was associated with a 6.6% lower risk of mortality at study entry, with a 0.3% greater effect for each year of life. For each one-point increase in the Charlson Comorbidity Index score at study entry, the risk of mortality was 9.9% higher, and was consistent across age. Adjusting for comorbidities, inhibitory control remained a significant predictor of mortality.
Findings raise the possibility of a premature onset, and accelerated trajectory, of cognitive ageing in this group of homeless and precariously housed people. Traumatic brain injury, alcohol dependence and cognition could be treatment priorities.
Previous work has shown that amygdala responsiveness to fearful expressions is inversely related to level of callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e. reduced guilt and empathy) in youth with conduct problems. However, some research has suggested that the relationship between pathophysiology and CU traits may be different in those youth with significant prior trauma exposure.
In experiment 1, 72 youth with varying levels of disruptive behavior and trauma exposure performed a gender discrimination task while viewing morphed fear expressions (0, 50, 100, 150 fear) and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent responses were recorded. In experiment 2, 66 of these youth performed the Social Goals Task, which measures self-reports of the importance of specific social goals to the participant in provoking social situations.
In experiment 1, a significant CU traits-by-trauma exposure interaction was observed within right amygdala; fear intensity-modulated amygdala responses negatively predicted CU traits for those youth with low levels of trauma but positively predicted CU traits for those with high levels of trauma. In experiment 2, a bootstrapped model revealed that the indirect effect of fear intensity amygdala response on social goal importance through CU traits is moderated by prior trauma exposure.
This study, while exploratory, indicates that the pathophysiology associated with CU traits differs in youth as a function of prior trauma exposure. These data suggest that prior trauma exposure should be considered when evaluating potential interventions for youth with high CU traits.