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To evaluate efficiency and impact of a novel antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) prospective-audit-with-feedback (PAF) review process using the Cerner Multi-Patient Task List (MPTL).
Retrospective cohort study.
A 367-bed free-standing, pediatric academic medical center.
The ASP PAF review process expanded to monitor all systemic and inhaled antibiotics through use of the MPTL on July 23, 2020. Average number of daily ASP reviews, absolute number of monthly interventions, and time to conduct ASP reviews were compared between the preimplementation period and the postimplementation period following expansion. Antibiotic days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 patient days for overall and select antibiotics were compared between periods. ASP intervention characteristics were assessed.
Average daily ASP reviews significantly increased following program expansion (9 vs 14 reviews; P < .0001), and the absolute number of ASP interventions each month also increased (34 vs 52 interventions; P ≤ .0001). Time to conduct daily ASP reviews increased in the postimplementation period (1.03 vs 1.32 hours). Overall antibiotic DOT per 1,000 patient days significantly decreased in the postimplementation period (457.9 vs 427.9; P < .0001) as well as utilization of select, narrow-spectrum antibiotics such as ampicillin and clindamycin. Intervention type and antibiotics were similar between periods. The ASP documented 128 “nonantibiotic interventions” in the postimplementation period, including culture and/or susceptibility testing (32.8%), immunizations (25.8%), and additional diagnostic testing (22.7%).
Implementation of an ASP PAF review process using the MPTL allowed for efficient expansion of a pre-existing ASP and a decrease in overall antibiotic utilization. ASP documentation was enhanced to fully track the impact of the program.
To assess current resources, interventions, and obstacles of pediatric outpatient antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP).
Institutions from the Sharing Antimicrobial Reports for Pediatric Stewardship OutPatient collaborative (SHARPS-OP).
Antimicrobial stewardship leaders from the above institutions.
An investigator-developed survey was deployed online in September 2020 to antimicrobial stewardship leaders in SHARPS-OP institutions. The survey was divided into 4 sections: (1) basic information, (2) status of pediatric outpatient ASP in the institutions including financial support, (3) outpatient ASP interventions undertaken by the institutions, and (4) needs and SHARPS-OP collaborative goals.
Of 56 invited institutions, 45 participated, achieving an 80% response rate. Only 5 sites (11%) had allocated financial support for an outpatient ASP, compared to 42 (95.6%) for their inpatient ASP. The most widely used outpatient ASP interventions included antimicrobial guidance (57.8%), education (46.7%), and quality improvement projects (37.8%). Time was identified as the biggest barrier to expanding outpatient ASPs (91.1%), followed by financial support (53.3%), development of meaningful reports (51.1%), and administrative support (44.4%). Important goals of the collaborative included seeking learning opportunities and developing clear metrics for pediatric outpatient ASP benchmarking. Program needs included securing operational support (35.8%) and strengthening data analysis (31.6%).
Very few pediatric institutions with robust inpatient ASPs have devoted time and financial support to advance outpatient efforts. To promote appropriate antibiotic prescribing in the outpatient arena, time and resource funding by administrative leaders are necessary to develop a robust, sustainable stewardship infrastructure.
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