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Electron microscopy has enabled atomic resolution imaging of matter. However, unlike optical spectroscopic imaging, traditional electron microscopes provide limited spectroscopic information in terms of their energy resolution. Only recently, owing to advances in monochromated STEM-EELS, have transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) been able to attain a high energy resolution. We recently proposed combining spectrally selective photoexcitation with HRTEM to achieve sub-nanometer scale optical imaging, a technique we called photoabsorption microscopy using electron analysis (PAMELA). To realize PAMELA-TEM experimentally, we constructed a TEM holder with an optical feedthrough, capable of photoexciting materials with different wavelengths. In this article, we describe our process for designing and fabricating an optical TEM specimen holder, highlighting important aspects of the design.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Identifying factors associated with opioid overdoses will enable better resource allocation in communities most impacted by the overdose epidemic. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Opioid overdoses often occur in hotspots identified by geographic and temporal trends. This study uses principles of community engaged research to identify neighborhood and community-level factors associated with opioid overdose within overdose hotspots which can be targets for novel intervention design. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted an environmental scan in three overdose hotspots’‘ two in an urban center and one in a small city’‘ identified by the Rhode Island Department of Health as having the highest opioid overdose burden in Rhode Island. We engaged hotspot community stakeholders to identify neighborhood factors to map within each hotspot. Locations of addiction treatment, public transportation, harm reduction programs, public facilities (i.e., libraries, parks), first responders, and social services agencies were converted to latitude and longitude and mapped in ArcGIS. Using Esri Service Areas, we will evaluate the service areas of stationary services. We will overlay overdose events and use logistic regression identify neighborhood factors associated with overdose by comparing hotspot and non-hotspot neighborhoods. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that there will be differing neighborhood characteristics associated with overdose events in the densely populated urban area and those in the smaller city. The urban area hotspots will have overlapping social services, addiction treatment, and transportation service areas, while the small city will have fewer community resources without overlapping service areas and reduced public transportation access. We anticipate that overdoses will occur during times of the day when services are not available. Overall, overdose hotspots will be associated with increased census block level unemployment, homelessness, vacant housing, and low food security. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Identifying factors associated with opioid overdoses will enable better resource allocation in communities most impacted by the overdose epidemic. Study results will be used for novel intervention design to prevent opioid overdose deaths in communities with high burden of opioid overdose.
Insular species, particularly birds, experience high levels of speciation and endemism. Similarly, island birds experience extreme levels of extinction. Based on a 2012 taxonomic assessment, historically there were four reed-warbler species in the Mariana Islands, the Guam Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia (Guam), the Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus hiwae (Saipan and Alamagan), the Aguijuan Reed-warbler A. nijoi (Aguiguan or Aguijuan), and the Pagan Reed-warbler A. yamashinae (Pagan). Between 2008 and 2010 we surveyed for three of these species on Alamagan, Aguiguan, and Pagan. Our results indicate that reed-warblers are extinct on Aguiguan, likely extinct on Pagan, and only the Nightingale Reed-warbler on Alamagan and Saipan remains. We estimated the global population at between 1,019 and 6,356 birds (95% CI; mean estimate 3,688), which has declined by more than 1,000 birds since the first quantitative surveys were conducted in 1982, i.e. a 24% decline in 28 years. Camp et al. (2009) describe the status of the Nightingale Reed-warbler on Saipan, which has also declined. We estimated the Alamagan population to be between 428 and 1,762 birds in 2010 (mean estimate 946). Thus, the Alamagan population is ~25 % of the global population, and it has declined slightly since 2000. This decline was not significant but is concerning, especially given a similar decline on Saipan. Restoration and protection of tall-stature native and secondary forest could benefit the Alamagan population, as would similar conservation on Saipan that includes wetland habitat. After suitable restoration of forest and wetland habitats on Aguiguan, Guam and Pagan, individuals from Alamagan and Saipan could serve as founder populations. Careful consideration of the extent and habitat preference of individuals translocated to Tinian, where an unknown reed-warbler species previously occurred, is warranted.
Genotype-first and within-family studies can elucidate factors that contribute to psychiatric illness. Combining these approaches, we investigated the patterns of influence of parental scores, a high-impact variant, and schizophrenia on dimensional neurobehavioral phenotypes implicated in major psychiatric disorders.
We quantitatively assessed cognitive (FSIQ, VIQ, PIQ), social, and motor functioning in 82 adult individuals with a de novo 22q11.2 deletion (22 with schizophrenia), and 148 of their unaffected parents. We calculated within-family correlations and effect sizes of the 22q11.2 deletion and schizophrenia, and used linear regressions to assess contributions to neurobehavioral measures.
Proband-parent intra-class correlations (ICC) were significant for cognitive measures (e.g. FSIQ ICC = 0.549, p < 0.0001), but not for social or motor measures. Compared to biparental scores, the 22q11.2 deletion conferred significant impairments for all phenotypes assessed (effect sizes −1.39 to −2.07 s.d.), strongest for PIQ. There were further decrements in those with schizophrenia. Regression models explained up to 37.7% of the variance in IQ and indicated that for proband IQ, parental IQ had larger effects than schizophrenia.
This study, for the first time, disentangles the impact of a high-impact variant from the modifying effects of parental scores and schizophrenia on relevant neurobehavioral phenotypes. The robust proband-parent correlations for cognitive measures, independent of the impact of the 22q11.2 deletion and of schizophrenia, suggest that, for certain phenotypes, shared genetic variation plays a significant role in expression. Molecular genetic and predictor studies are needed to elucidate shared factors and their contribution to psychiatric illness in this and other high-risk groups.
Healthcare personnel (HCP) were recruited to provide serum samples, which were tested for antibodies against Ebola or Lassa virus to evaluate for asymptomatic seroconversion.
From 2014 to 2016, 4 patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) and 1 patient with Lassa fever (LF) were treated in the Serious Communicable Diseases Unit (SCDU) at Emory University Hospital. Strict infection control and clinical biosafety practices were implemented to prevent nosocomial transmission of EVD or LF to HCP.
All personnel who entered the SCDU who were required to measure their temperatures and complete a symptom questionnaire twice daily were eligible.
No employee developed symptomatic EVD or LF. EVD and LF antibody studies were performed on sera samples from 42 HCP. The 6 participants who had received investigational vaccination with a chimpanzee adenovirus type 3 vectored Ebola glycoprotein vaccine had high antibody titers to Ebola glycoprotein, but none had a response to Ebola nucleoprotein or VP40, or a response to LF antigens.
Patients infected with filoviruses and arenaviruses can be managed successfully without causing occupation-related symptomatic or asymptomatic infections. Meticulous attention to infection control and clinical biosafety practices by highly motivated, trained staff is critical to the safe care of patients with an infection from a special pathogen.
The north-west European population of Bewick’s Swan Cygnus columbianus bewickii declined by 38% between 1995 and 2010 and is listed as ‘Endangered’ on the European Red List of birds. Here, we combined information on food resources within the landscape with long-term data on swan numbers, habitat use, behaviour and two complementary measures of body condition, to examine whether changes in food type and availability have influenced the Bewick’s Swan’s use of their main wintering site in the UK, the Ouse Washes and surrounding fens. Maximum number of Bewick’s Swans rose from 620 in winter 1958/59 to a high of 7,491 in winter 2004/05, before falling to 1,073 birds in winter 2013/14. Between winters 1958/59 and 2014/15 the Ouse Washes supported between 0.5 and 37.9 % of the total population wintering in north-west Europe (mean ± 95 % CI = 18.1 ± 2.4 %). Swans fed on agricultural crops, shifting from post-harvest remains of root crops (e.g. sugar beet and potatoes) in November and December to winter-sown cereals (e.g. wheat) in January and February. Inter-annual variation in the area cultivated for these crops did not result in changes in the peak numbers of swans occurring on the Ouse Washes. Behavioural and body condition data indicated that food supplies on the Ouse Washes and surrounding fens remain adequate to allow the birds to gain and maintain good body condition throughout winter with no increase in foraging effort. Our findings suggest that the recent decline in numbers of Bewick’s Swans at this internationally important site was not linked to inadequate food resources.
In the United States alone, ∼14,000 children are hospitalised annually with acute heart failure. The science and art of caring for these patients continues to evolve. The International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was held on February 4 and 5, 2015. The 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was funded through the Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program Endowment, a philanthropic collaboration between All Children’s Hospital and the Morsani College of Medicine at the University of South Florida (USF). Sponsored by All Children’s Hospital Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program, the International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit assembled leaders in clinical and scientific disciplines related to paediatric heart failure and created a multi-disciplinary “think-tank”. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarise the lessons from the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute, to describe the “state of the art” of the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure, and to discuss future directions for research in the domain of paediatric cardiac failure.
The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian Myzomela Myzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.
The above article from Management and Organization Review, published online 7 SEP 2011, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal's outgoing Editor-in-Chief Anne Tsui, the journal's incoming Editor-in-Chief Arie Y. Lewin, and John Wiley & Sons Asia Pty Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to unattributed overlap with work previously published in Academy of Management Review, 34(4): 586–591: ‘Editor's comments: The better angels of our nature – Ethics and integrity in publishing process’ by Marshall Schminke. The editors and authors joindy wrote a letter, available below, to explain the process used to come to the retraction decision.
The purpose of this letter is to explain the circumstances and reasons for the retraction of the paper ‘Ethics and integrity of the publishing process: Myths, facts, and a roadmap’ by Schminke and Ambrose in Management and Organization Review (MOR), Volume 7 issue 3, pages 397 to 406, November 2011.
Retraction of a published paper due to self-plagiarism is an unpleasant if not painful experience for both journal editors and authors. Self-plagiarism means that authors have used materials in another paper (whether published or in working paper format) without attributing the source of the materials or ideas. In this instance, the materials being self-plagiarized are from an earlier editorial written by the lead author. Self-plagiarism is in violation of publication ethics, according to the Committee of Publication Ethics' guidelines on suspected plagiarism (http://publicationethics.org/files/u7140/plagiarism%20B_0.pdf).
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with significant symptoms of depression. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective for depression in PD. However, much of the previous research focuses on working with younger adults in the earlier stages of the disease, despite evidence for greater risk of depression when PD symptoms are more severe. This paper provides a case illustration of using CBT for depression with an 84-year-old man with advanced PD. The results of an assessment are described and a psychological formulation is presented. The specific adaptations made to the therapy and illustrations of the content of therapy are discussed. This intervention resulted in improvements in global mental health and moderate reductions in depression. However, there was no effect on anxiety. This case highlights the complexity of conducting CBT with this population, and further research is needed to determine the modifications necessary to make such interventions effective.
Excavations at Tinney's Lane, Sherborne in 2002 uncovered extensive evidence for Late Bronze Age settlement and pottery production, dating from a short time period probably within the 12th or 11th century cal bc. Well-preserved deposits of burnt stone, broken vessels, and burnt sherds, together with resulting debris redeposited in associated pits, were accompanied by a series of post-hole structures interpreted as round-houses and four-post settings. Environmental evidence in the form of charcoal, charred plant remains, and molluscs has provided important information concerning sources of fuel and water for pottery production as well as allowing a reconstruction of the local vegetation. Finds of fired clay, metal, stone, shale, flint, and bone include items from distant sources, informing topics such as site status and exchange, and include many categories of tools and equipment that would have been used within the pottery-making processes. Analysis of the spatial distribution of these finds amongst the structures and surviving layers of burning has allowed the definition of a series of industrial activity areas, each comprising one or more round-houses, a four-post structure, bonfire bases or pits used for firing, and other pits with specific related functions. Altogether the site has provided some of the best evidence for pottery production within prehistoric Britain.
During the 1960s and 1970s, aerial reconnaissance on the northern side of the confluence of the Rivers Trent, Tame, and Mease in Staffordshire revealed a cluster of features indicative of prehistoric ceremonial activity. Some of the features within the cluster are morphologically unique, but a lack of previous investigation meant that their dating, phasing, and function were unknown. This paper details the results of a multi-disciplinary approach to addressing these questions about the complex and to place it into its contemporary landscape context. The results indicate that the complex represents numerous phases of symbolic and ceremonial activity extending from the late Neolithic and into the early Bronze Age. Furthermore, it has shown how these structures fit within a wider landscape of ceremonial activity extending back to the earlier Neolithic and continuing into the Bronze Age.
The avifauna of the Mariana Islands, an archipelago in the western Pacific, faces the threats of rapid economic development and the spread of non-native species, particularly a devastating predator, Brown Tree Snake Boiga irregularis. In this paper, we examine the status and trends of the land bird fauna of Saipan Island based on three island-wide surveys conducted in 1982, 1997, and 2007. During this period, the human population on Saipan increased more than four-fold and much of the island has been developed. The surveys employed standard point-transect methods based on Distance Sampling. Remarkably, we found nearly all species of land birds - 11 native species and three introduced species - to be common or abundant. The exception was the Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperouse, a historically rare species that was not observed on the 2007 survey, although it does persist on Saipan and other Mariana islands. A comparison of species densities among the three surveys showed that seven species, mainly fruit and seed-eaters, had increased and three species of insectivorous birds had decreased - Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia, and Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei. Of these three, Nightingale Reed-warbler is listed as ‘Endangered’ on the IUCN Red List and as an Endangered Species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Reed-warbler densities on Saipan decreased by more than half between 1982 and 2007. Although point transect sampling worked well for this species, density estimates and trends assessment could be improved by reallocating sampling stations among habitats and by more frequent sampling.
The use of an ion beam assist during the concurrent deposition of cubic materials can result in the growth of crystallographically oriented thin films. A model system, magnesium oxide (MgO), has been successfully used as a biaxially textured template film and develops texture in a different manner from that of other well-studied materials, like yttria-stablized zirconia. Here, we present data on the initial nucleation of biaxial texture in this model system using a novel in-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) substrate combined with in-situ reflected high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Temporal correlation of mass uptake with the RHEED images of the growing surface can be used to elucidate the mechanism of texture development in these films. Experimental data shows that the initially polycrystalline MgO film develops biaxial crystallographic texture at a thickness of ˜2 nm, regardless of the ion-to-molecule ratio. RHEED images show the onset of texture occurs quickly and is somewhat analogous to a solid phase re-crystallization process with crystallite sizes of ˜3 to 4 nm. Imaging with transmission electron microscopy has corroborated these observations. Changes in the ion-to-molecule ratio can influence the crystallite size and affect the nucleation density of these films. Growth of these films on various substrates changes the sticking coefficient of the MgO and influences the nucleation density and film growth mode as well. This opens the possibility of using MgO and other materials to develop biaxially textured crystallites with a narrow, specified size distribution for nanoscale applications.