To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA ) axis in persons with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have produced variable findings. This review focuses on the factors likely to have affected the outcome of these studies, including population characteristics and experimental design. Also discussed is a possible role for the adrenal neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) as a mediator of HPA axis adaptation to extreme stress and the psychiatric symptoms associated with PTSD. The antiglucocorticoid properties of DHEA may contribute to an upregulation of HPA axis responses as well as mitigate possible deleterious effects of high cortisol levels on the brain in some PTSD subpopulations. The neuromodulatory effects of DHEA and its metabolite DHEAS at γ-arninobutyric acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the brain may contribute to psychiatric symptoms associated with PTSD. The possible importance of other neurohormone systems in modulating HPA axis and symptom responses to traumatic stress is also discussed. Understanding the complex interactions of these stress-responsive neurosteroid and peptide systems may help explain the variability in patterns of HPA axis adaptation, brain changes, and psychiatric symptoms observed in PTSD and lead to better targeting of preventive and therapeutic interventions.
Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show a cognitive bias for threatening information, reflecting dysregulated executive control for affective stimuli. This study examined whether comorbid mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) with PTSD exacerbates this bias. A computer-administered Affective Go/No-Go task measured reaction times (RTs) and errors of omission and commission to words with a non–combat-related positive or negative valence in 72 deployed United States service members from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Incidents of military-related mTBI were measured with the Boston Assessment of Traumatic Brain Injury-Lifetime. PTSD symptoms were measured with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Participants were divided into those with (mTBI+, n = 34) and without a history of military-related mTBI (mTBI−, n = 38). Valence of the target stimuli differentially impacted errors of commission and decision bias (criterion) in the mTBI+ and mTBI− groups. Specifically, within the mTBI+ group, increasing severity of PTSD symptoms was associated with an increasingly liberal response pattern (defined as more commission errors to negative distractors and greater hit rate for positive stimuli) in the positive compared to the negative blocks. This association was not observed in the mTBI− group. This study underscores the importance of considering the impact of a military-related mTBI and PTSD severity upon affective executive control. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–10)
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.