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The present study was carried out to estimate lamb survival (in days) from birth to weaning under survival analysis using data records from 2057 Harnali lambs born to 134 sires and 623 dams between the period from 2001 to 2020. The weaning age in resourced population was 90 days from birth. The hazard ratio in terms of risk of death up to weaning was determined using Cox proportional hazards model by subjecting some fixed factors such as year of birth, sex of lamb, birth weight (kg), dam’s weight at lambing (kg) and dam’s age at lambing (years). The overall survivability up to weaning among lambs was 91.59% and Kaplan–Meier estimates of mean survival time up to weaning was 85.77 days. Cox proportional hazard modelling revealed that the hazards of death up to weaning was higher in male lambs [1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22–2.26] compared with female lambs [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.00]. It was also observed that the hazards of death (HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.88–0.94) had decreasing trends over years. For birth weight (kg), hazard rate was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.25–0.46), which indicated that the risk of pre-weaning mortality was lower as birth weight increases. The weight and age of dams at lambing did not influence the survival time of studied population. The present findings indicated that survival time increased in studied lambs over the years and it could be increased more by giving more emphasis on better litter weight and general health aspects at farm level.
The present study evaluated maternal and additive influences that contribute to phenotypic variation in various growth traits in Munjal sheep. The targeted traits that pertained to 2278 records of 706 lambs were birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WT3), 6-month body weight (WT6), 12-month body weight (WT12), average daily gain (ADG1: 0–3 months; ADG2: 3–6 months, ADG3: 6–12 months of age) and their corresponding Kleiber ratios designated as KR1, KR2 and KR3. The direct heritability estimates for BWT, WT3, WT6, WT12, ADG1, ADG2, ADG3, KR1, KR2 and KR3 under animal models were 0.20 ± 0.08, 0.28 ± 0.08, 0.17 ± 0.07, 0.47 ± 0.09, 0.33 ± 0.08, 0.09 ± 0.06, 0.36 ± 0.10, 0.33 ± 0.08, 0.09 ± 0.06 and 0.32 ± 0.10, respectively. The estimates of maternal genetic effects contributed significantly and were 8% and 7% for BWT and WT3 traits, respectively, which highlighted the considerable role of maternal effects on early growth traits. Genetic and phenotypic correlations ranged from moderate to high between weaning and post-weaning traits. It was concluded that early selection that considered additive as well as maternal effects at weaning age may be delivered to the desired genetic progress in Munjal sheep.
The objective of the current study was to estimate the genetic parameters for ewe productivity traits of Harnali sheep by examining non-genetic effects. The data records of 440 animals born to 85 sires and 259 dams were collected with respect to various traits such as litter size at birth (LSB), litter weight at birth (LWB), litter size at weaning (LSW), litter weight at weaning (LWW) and age at first lambing (AFL) for the period of 2001 to 2020. Genetic parameters were estimated by fitting a series of animal models using an average information restricted maximum likelihood (REML) algorithm in WOMBAT software. Least-squares analysis revealed significant (P < 0.05) influences of period of lambing, age and weight of ewe at lambing on the studied traits. These results indicated that heavier ewes had significantly higher (P < 0.05) values of litter weight traits than their counterparts. On the basis of likelihood ratio test, the estimates of direct heritability under best model for AFL, LSB, LWB, LSW and LWW were 0.06, 0.18, 0.09, 0.07 and 0.16, respectively. Maternal permanent environment effect made a significant contribution to the LSB trait (0.20). The genetic correlation between litter size and LWW was negative, while the remaining correlations were positive. The present results suggest that selection based on ewe productivity traits will result in low genetic progress and therefore the management role is more important for better gains.
Fractals have unique properties such as self-similarity and space-filling. The use of fractal geometry in antenna design provides a good method for achieving the desired miniaturization, multi-band, and wideband properties. In this communication, novel fractal geometry is proposed based on which a multiband antenna is designed. The proposed antenna has fractal patches which are shaped as different iterations of an eight-pointed star. The multiband behavior is in the frequency range from 4.50 to 17.00 GHz. The proposed antenna is designed on a dielectric substrate Roggers RO4003 lossy with a dielectric constant of εr = 3.55. The antenna has applications in commercial and military communication system.
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