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Given the high disease burden associated with the low intake of whole grains, modelling studies that estimate the impact of dietary strategies to increase more healthful grain foods consumption are essential to inform evidence-based and culturally specific policies. The current study investigated the potential nutritional impact of replacing staple grain foods with more healthful options.
Based on the 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional, population-based study, we modelled the substitution of white rice and white bread with brown rice and whole-wheat bread. Outcomes included changes in more healthful grain foods, energy and nutrient intakes.
Urban area of São Paulo, Brazil.
Participants aged over 12 years who completed a semi-structured questionnaire and one 24-h recall (n 1741).
The substitution of all white rice and white bread with brown rice and whole-wheat bread, respectively, would result in more than 5 % increases in Zn (+9·1 %), Ca (+9·3 %), vitamin E (+18·8 %), dietary fibre (+27·0 %) and Mg (+52·9 %) intake, while more than a 5 % decrease would be seen for total carbohydrate (–6·1 %), folate (–6·6 %), available carbohydrate (–8·5 %), Fe (–8·6 %), vitamin B6 (–12·5 %), vitamin B2 (–17·4 %), and vitamin B1 (–20·7 %). A substantial increase in the amount of more healthful grain foods consumed would be seen (10 g/d to 220 g/d, or from 4 % to 69 % of total grain intake).
Replacing white rice and white bread with their whole-grain versions has the potential to improve diet quality, suggesting they are prime targets for policy actions aiming at increasing intake of more healthful grain foods.
Although evidence shows some decrease in energy intake, consumption of added sugars, solid fat acids (SFA), and sodium are still high among Latin Americans. This study evaluated top food sources contributing to the percentage of energy and nutrients-to-limit among Latin Americans.
Materials and Methods
Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) cross-sectional included 9,218 adults from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. 24h-recalls were used and foods were identified via adaptation of “What We Eat in America” system. Food sources of energy and nutrient-to-limit were ranked based on the percentage of intake contribution.
Argentina energy food sources were pizza (11.8%), and meats (5.7%); added sugars were sweetened beverages (14.3%), and quick breads (12.4%); SFA was pizza (22.2%) and meats (7.8%); and sodium was pizza (15.5%), and soup (7.6%). Brazil energy sources were alcoholic beverages (9.3%), and pizza (6.9%); added sugars were sweetened beverages (14.7%) and desserts (14.3%); SFA and sodium were pizza (9.0% and 9.9%) and sandwiches (9.4%). Chile energy sources were pizza (11.9%) and grain-based dishes (5.6%); added sugars were sweet bakeries (16.6%) and sweetened beverages (13.8%); SFA and sodium were pizza (19.6% and 21.2%) and sandwiches (7.4% and 7.7%). Colombia energy sources were pizza (6.6%) and alcoholic beverages (5.6%); added sugars were snacks (15.2%) and desserts (12.9%); SFA were desserts (9.7%) and pizza (7.6%); and sodium were soups (11.8%) and pizza (10.5%). Costa Rica energy sources were pizza (8.7%) and alcoholic beverages (6.9%), added sugars were sweetened beverages (13.0%) and candy (10.5%); SFA was pizza (12.0%) and Mexican dishes (8.9%); and sodium was pizza (13.5%) and sandwiches (8.8%). Ecuador energy sources were grain dishes (7.7%) and alcoholic beverages (6.8%), added sugars were sweetened beverages (14.6%) and desserts (12.6%), SFA was pizza (8.8%) and grain-based dishes (7.5%), and sodium were Asian dishes (10.4%) and grain-based dishes (9.2%). Peru energy sources were grain-based dishes (8.9%) and alcoholic beverages (8.2%), added sugars were yogurts (18.6%) and sweetened beverages (14.3%), SFA was pizza (8.6%) and sandwiches (8.1%), and sodium were grain-based dishes (17.2%) and cooked grains (14.9%). Venezuela energy sources were grain-based dishes (6.9%) and alcoholic beverages (6.1%), added sugars were sweetened beverages (13.5%) and desserts (11.3%), SFA were grain-based dishes (11.3%) and meats (7.7%), and sodium were sandwiches (9.0%) and grain-based dishes (7.9%).
Awareness of food sources is critical for designing strategies to help Latin Americans meet nutrient recommendations within energy needs.
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