To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Elected pope in the wake of a rebellion, Eugenius III came to power as a relative unknown during a time of crisis. This book examines the controversial developments in papal justice and theological debate during his pontificate, his treatment of Cistercian monasteries, his relationships with France, Spain, and Rome, his work in the papal states, and the crusades. It offers a new view of an under-appreciated pope and the place of the church in a rapidly changing European society.
Bernard of Pisa (c.1080s–1153) was one of the most surprising of medieval popes. A native of Pisa, he was a canon of the cathedral chapter and vicedominus of his archdiocese before entering Clairvaux as a monk in 1138, and becoming abbot of the new Cistercian foundation of Tre Fontane, near Rome, in 1140. He was elected to the papal throne in 1145 as a relative unknown at a time of crisis, and spent much of his pontificate away from Rome. As the first Cistercian monk to become pope, his relationship with his former abbot Bernard of Clairvaux has often been seen as the keynote of his pontificate, and Bernard's preaching of the Second Crusade has tended to overshadow Eugenius's role in the design and execution of that expedition. Yet his years as pope saw important developments in the relationship between the papal office and royal authority, in the role of the papacy as a judicial office, and in papal crusading theory. They were also critical years in the history of Rome, and of the Cistercian congregation.
The studies presented in this book consider the many facets of Eugenius as pope, exploring his oversight of judicial practice; theological developments in his pontificate; his treatment of Cistercian monasteries and of constitutional developments in his order; his relationships with Crown and Church in France and Spain, and with Rome and the Romans; his work in building up the papal states, and his view of the crusades in both the Baltic and the Mediterranean. Together these essays offer a new view not only of an under-appreciated pope but also of the institution he headed and of its place in a rapidly changing European society.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
Despite growing interest in men's perinatal mental health, we still know
little about whether becoming a new father is associated with increases
in psychological distress.
To use prospective longitudinal data to investigate whether becoming a
first-time expectant (partner pregnant) and/or new father (child <1
year) is associated with increases in depression and anxiety.
Men were aged 20–24 years at baseline (n = 1162). Levels
of depression and anxiety were measured at four time points over 12
years. Over this time, 88 men were expectant fathers, 108 men were new
fathers and 626 men remained non-fathers.
Longitudinal mixed models showed no significant increase in depression or
anxiety as a function of expectant or new fatherhood, as compared with
Our findings suggest that, generally, expectant and new fathers are not
at greater risk of depression or anxiety. Future epidemiological research
should continue to identify men who are most (and least) at risk to focus
resources and assistance most effectively.