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The hypotheses in both target articles rely implicitly on much the same logic. For a “social-bonding” device to make sense, there must be an underlying reason why an otherwise-arbitrary behaviour sustains alliances – namely, credible signals of one's value to partners. To illustrate our points, we draw on the parallels with supposed bonding behaviours in nonhuman animals.
This chapter argues that syntactic structures contain a range of different types of empty category It begins by arguing (4.1) that seemingly subjectless sentences have null subjects of various kinds. It then argues that all clauses contain a TP projection, and that TP can be headed by a null T constituent in indicative clauses (4.2), subjunctive clauses, infinitive clauses, and small clauses (4.3). It then goes on to argue that all finite clauses are CPs headed by an overt or null C constituent (4.4), and that the same is true of most infinitive clauses (4.5). However, evidence is presented that small clauses and some infinitival clauses are defective in respect of lacking the CP layer found in other clauses. There is then a discussion of empty categories in nominals (4.6), arguing in support of positing null determiners and quantifiers, and null prepositions introducing so-called adverbial’ nominals/pronouns. The chapter concludes with a summary (4.7), and a set of bibliographical notes (4.8). Accompanying free-to-download materials include a Workbook and Answerbook for students, and an Answerbook and set of PowerPoints for teachers.
This chapter starts (5.1) by arguing that Subject-Auxiliary Inversion involves a copying operation by which a copy of an auxiliary in T is moved into C and the original copy of the auxiliary in T is given a null spellout. It goes on (5.2) to explore the licensing of Inversion, and argues that clauses containing an inverted auxiliary following an overt complementiser involve CP recursion. It then turns (5.3) to look at the V-to-T raising operation by which finite verbs raise from V to T in Shakespearean English, and (5.4) at the Auxiliary Raising operation by which an auxiliary can raise from a position below T to adjoin to an unattached Tense affix in T in present-day English. There is then discussion of the nature of negation (5.5) and do-support (5.6). The chapter concludes with a summary (5.7), and a set of bibliographical notes (5.8). Accompanying free-to-download materials include a Workbook and Answerbook for students, and an Answerbook and set of PowerPoints for teachers: each of these contain a separate set of materials for each core section of the chapter.
This chapter examines a range of movement operations by which phrases can move to spec-CP. It begins by arguing (6.1) that wh-questions are CPs containing a wh-constituent which moves from some position below C into spec-CP. It goes on (6.2) to show how question words can pied-pipe additional material along with them when they move, and argues that this is in consequence of putatively universal principles governing movement. There is then (6.3) discussion of evidence that long Wh-Movement proceeds one clause at a time, and of constraints which determine how it applies. 6.4 examines the syntax of wh-exclamatives, arguing that these too involve Wh-Movement, and discussing the factors determining what moves where. 6.5 discusses various types of relative clause, and provides a Wh-Movement account of restrictive relative clauses, as well as sketching an alternative Antecedent Raising account. The chapter concludes with a summary (6.6), and a set of bibliographical notes (6.7). Accompanying free-to-download materials include a Workbook and Answerbook for students, and an Answerbook and set of PowerPoints for teachers.
This chapter looks at the syntax of adjuncts, beginning with the head adjunction operation which adjoins one head to another (3.1). The remainder of the chapter looks at phrasal adjunction operations which adjoin one phrase to another. 3.2 looks at how adverbial/prepositional phrases, subordinate clauses and topics can be adjoined to TP, and thereby be positioned between complementiser and subject. 3.3 argues that adverbial/prepositional phrases and extraposed constituents can be adjoined to VP. 3.4 argues that adnominal adjectival phrases are adjoined to noun phrases, and considers possible ways of accounting for the relative ordering of structures containing multiple adnominal adjectival phrases. 3.5 proposes a related analysis of adnominal prepositional phrases and relative clauses as NP adjuncts. The recursive nature of adjunction and the nature of constraints on adjunction are also discussed. The chapter concludes with a summary (3.6), and a set of bibliographical notes (3.7). Accompanying free-to-download materials include a Workbook and Answerbook for students, and an Answerbook and set of PowerPoints for teachers.
This chapter begins (1.1) by looking at prescriptive and descriptive approaches to grammar, and at different sources of linguistic data. It goes on to discuss the approach to syntax in traditional grammar, looking at grammatical categories (1.2) and grammatical functions (1.3). 1.4 considers aspects of syntax which are potentially universal before going on to consider the nature of universals, the architecture of grammars, and the Strong Minimalist Thesis. 1.5 examines parameters of variation between languages, before turning to consider the role of parameter-setting in language acquisition, and outlining Principles and Parameters Theory (1.6). The chapter concludes with a summary (1.7), and a set of bibliographical notes (1.8). There is a free-to-download Students’ Workbook that includes a separate set of exercise material for each core section and a Students’ Answerbook. The free-to-download Teachers’ Answerbook provides detailed written answers for every single exercise example. The free-to-download Powerpoints provide a more vivid and visual representation of the material in each core section of the chapter.
This chapter provides an introduction to syntactic structure and how it is represented by tree diagrams. It begins (2.1) with an account of the Merge operation by which words can be combined together to form phrases, and phrases combined together to form clauses. It then goes on to examine the nature of heads, complements and specifiers (2.2), and the nature of projections (2.3). Next (2.4), it outlines eight ways of testing syntactic structure, before turning to look at how hierarchical structure (and the relation c-command) plays a central role in the description of phenomena like the licensing of polarity items (2.5) and the binding of anaphors (2.6). It also briefly touches on the possibility of developing a theory of bare phrase structure, and of treating syntactic structures as inherently unordered, with linearisation taking place in the phonological component. The chapter concludes with a summary (2.7), and a set of bibliographical notes (2.8). Accompanying free-to-download materials include a Workbook for students, and an Answerbook and set of PowerPoints for teachers: each of these contain a separate set of materials for each core section of the chapter.
This new edition of Andrew Radford's outstanding resource for students is a step-by-step, practical introduction to English syntax and syntactic principles, written by a globally-renowned expert in the field. Assuming little or no prior background in syntax, Radford outlines key concepts and how they can be used to describe various aspects of English sentence structure. Each chapter contains core modules focusing on a specific topic, a summary recapitulating the main points of the chapter, and a bibliographical section providing references to original source material. This edition has been extensively updated, with new analyses, exercise materials, references and a brand-new chapter on adjuncts. Students will benefit from the online workbook, which contains a vast amount of exercise material for each module, including self-study materials and a student answerbook for these. Teachers will value the extensive PowerPoints outlining module contents and the comprehensive teacher answerbook, which covers all workbook and PowerPoint exercises.
This book is a follow-up to my research monograph on Colloquial English published by Cambridge University Press in 2018. It was originally intended to form a chapter of that book, but both Colloquial English and the prospective additional chapter on relative clauses became so long that the publisher suggested that my research on relative clauses should be published as a separate monograph – and this book is the result.