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A variety of ancient sources suggest that there was more than one Aristophanic play entitled Πλοῦτος, and the scholia on the extant Plutus show that one ancient commentator erroneously thought that he was working on a comedy of 408 BC when in reality he had the comedy of 388 BC in front of him. This error, which most likely arose because there were two similar versions of the late Plutus, has often been attributed to the first-century BC scholar Didymus Chalcenterus. It is here argued that the basis for this ascription is weak and that there are in fact substantial counter-arguments. Instead of Didymus, a later commentator such as the second-century AD scholar Symmachus may have been responsible for the mistake, which probably had more to do with the evolving transmission history of Aristophanes’ comedies than with careless scholarship.
Loneliness among older people is perceived as a global public health concern, although assumptions that old age is a particularly lonely time for everyone are not accurate. While there is accumulating quantitative and qualitative evidence on the experience and impact of loneliness amongst older adults, there is little exploration of methodological issues that arise in engaging with older adults particularly through research-oriented conversations. The sensitivity and stigma often attached to loneliness means that interviewing research participants presents ethical challenges for researchers navigating complex emotional responses. This paper presents reflections from three research projects that used research interviews to explore accounts of loneliness experienced by older people. The everyday methodological decisions of research teams are often hidden from view, but through a critical examination of reflexive accounts of fieldwork, this paper makes visible the internal and external negotiations of researchers responding to ethical complexity. The paper explores the key decisions that researchers make during interviews about loneliness: how to introduce the topic; how to phrase questions about loneliness; when to ask the questions; how to deal with the stigma of loneliness and respond to ageism; and how to manage the participant–researcher relationship post-interview. The paper concludes with recommendations for appropriately navigating ethical complexity in loneliness research, thus contributing to an effective qualitative methodological approach to researching loneliness in later life.
Offering a re-evaluation of all the available evidence, including passages from Aristotle's Rhetoric, Poetics and Sophistici Elenchi, Diogenes Laertius’ biographical sketch as well as the grammar scene in Aristophanes’ Clouds, this article argues that Protagoras’ engagement with grammatical questions must have been more sophisticated and thorough than is often assumed. In Protagoras’ discovery of grammatical gender, formal considerations – most likely inspired by the analysis of personal names – played a more fundamental role than semantic ones, and his typology of πυθμένες λόγων equally presupposes the formal recognition of at least verbal mood, if not also tense.
This paper integrates the first rock art directly dated with radiocarbon (14C) in Southeast Asia with the archaeological activity in the area and with stylistically similar rock art in the region. Peñablanca is a hotspot of archaeological research that includes the oldest dates for human remains in the Philippines. The caves in Peñablanca with known rock art were revisited and only 37.6% of the original recorded figures were found; the others are likely lost to agents of deterioration. A sample was collected from an anthropomorph and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dated to 3570–3460 cal BP. The date corresponds to archaeological activity in the area and provides a more holistic view of the people inhabiting the Peñablanca caves at that time. A systematic review was used to find similar black anthropomorph motifs in Southeast Asia to identify potential connections across the region and provide a possible chronological association.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Deep brain stimulation is currently being evaluated as an experimental therapy for various psychiatric disorders, as well as being investigated as a method for mapping emotional brain functions. This growing area of research requires sensitive measures to quantify effects of stimulation on emotional processing. The current study examined the effects of acute stimulation to 2 limbic regions—the subcallosal cingulate (SCC) and the amygdala—on bias in the perception and evaluation of emotional facial expressions. We hypothesized that transient electrical stimulation to the limbic system would produce acute reductions in negative bias, consistent with its antidepressant effects in patients with severe depression. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The current study uses a novel affective bias task, developed to rapidly and covertly quantify emotional state. Over 4–6 minutes, patients rate the intensity and valence of static images of emotional facial expressions. We examined effects of electrical brain stimulation in 2 groups: patients with treatment-refractory depression undergoing SCC DBS therapy, and epilepsy patients undergoing amygdala stimulation via stereo-EEG electrodes during inpatient intracranial monitoring. DBS patients completed the task under stimulation and sham conditions during monthly visits over the first 6 months of therapy, as well as daily during a 1 week, blinded period of DBS discontinuation at the 6-month time point. Epilepsy patients completed the task under stimulation and sham conditions at a single visit. Mixed linear models and paired-samples t-test were used to investigate effects of stimulation as well as depression scale scores on affective bias ratings. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Four SCC DBS patients showed significant effects of stimulation (p<0.0001) and depressive state (p<0.0001) on affective bias scores across 6 months of chronic DBS therapy, where emotional faces were perceived as less sad with stimulation ON, as well as during visits in which patients were nondepressed (typically later in the treatment course). Furthermore, 2 DBS patients showed rapid negative shifts in bias following acute blinded discontinuation of chronic stimulation, an effect which persisted over the 1-week period of discontinuation (t29=−2.58, p=0.015), in the absence of any self-reported change in mood. Likewise, 6 epilepsy patients showed significant positive shifts in affective bias with acute amygdala stimulation (t5=−4.75, p=0.005). Current analyses are investigating electrophysiological, autonomic and facial motor correlates to affective bias in these patients. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Affective bias has revealed rapid, significant changes with stimulation at 2 limbic targets—one a white matter hub and one a nuclear subcortical structure—suggesting the task’s utility as an emotional outcome measure in brain stimulation studies. These stimulation-sensitive measures may provide a new metric to track treatment response to deep brain stimulation therapy for affective disorders. Future studies will determine whether affective bias can predict neuropsychiatric complications in patients undergoing stimulation mapping of brain circuitry ahead of resection surgery for epilepsy.