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The consequences of missed lower-limb deep vein thromboses (DVT) can be life-threatening. Similarly, inappropriate treatment with anticoagulation in low-risk patients carries a significant risk of harm. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment with anticoagulation rely on timely ultrasound access. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends timeframes for ultrasound acquisition based on Well’s score and D-dimer value.
If rapid ultrasound (Point of care Ultrasound POCUS in our context) demonstrates no features of DVT, it is safe to arrange follow-up scan within eight days without empiric anticoagulation. If, however, no bedside ultrasound is performed, anticoagulation is commenced until a formal scan excludes DVT. NG158 recommends this scan be performed within 24 hours. This audit investigated our compliance with NG158 time standards at Wexford General Hospital (WGH) emergency department (ED).
Electronic records for patients undergoing formal ultrasound for suspected DVT between 08/01/2022-10/13/2022 were reviewed using the hospital’s databases. Charts were reviewed to determine if POCUS was performed. In total, 42 records met selection criteria. Audit Committee governance review was obtained. Fisher’s exact test was used to compare compliance rates between those that underwent bedside ultrasound and those that did not.
Overall compliance with NG158 was 40.5%. Compliance rates for those offered bedside ultrasound were significantly higher than those that weren’t (58.3% vs. 16.7% p<0.0106). The mean waiting time for a radiology department ultrasound is six days, 12 hours, and 16 minutes.
Overall compliance is low, and delays to obtaining formal ultrasound are long. We observed that compliance rates for those who underwent bedside ultrasound were significantly higher than for those who did not. This suggests that bedside ultrasound is under-utilized in our ED. Training more staff to perform bedside scans would alleviate current delays to ultrasound diagnosis and reduce risks associated with empiric anticoagulation.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Clinical databases in congenital and paediatric cardiac care provide a foundation for quality improvement, research, policy evaluations and public reporting. Structured audits verifying data integrity allow database users to be confident in these endeavours. We report on the initial audit of the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4) clinical registry.
Materials and methods
Participants reviewed the entire registry to determine key fields for audit, and defined major and minor discrepancies for the audited variables. In-person audits at the eight initial participating centres were conducted during a 12-month period. The data coordinating centre randomly selected intensive care encounters for review at each site. The audit consisted of source data verification and blinded chart abstraction, comparing findings by the auditors with those entered in the database. We also assessed completeness and timeliness of case submission. Quantitative evaluation of completeness, accuracy, and timeliness of case submission is reported.
We audited 434 encounters and 29,476 data fields. The aggregate overall accuracy was 99.1%, and the major discrepancy rate was 0.62%. Across hospitals, the overall accuracy ranged from 96.3 to 99.5%, and the major discrepancy rate ranged from 0.3 to 0.9%; seven of the eight hospitals submitted >90% of cases within 1 month of hospital discharge. There was no evidence for selective case omission.
Based on a rigorous audit process, data submitted to the PC4 clinical registry appear complete, accurate, and timely. The collaborative will maintain ongoing efforts to verify the integrity of the data to promote science that advances quality improvement efforts.