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Recently, the study of the influence of solar activity on the Earth's climate received strong attention, mainly due to the possibility, proposed by several authors, that global warming is not anthropogenic, but is due to an increase in solar activity. Although this possibility has been ruled out, there are strong evidences that solar variability has an influence on Earth's climate, in regional scales.
Here we review some of these evidences, focusing in a particular aspect of climate: atmospheric moisture and related quantities like precipitation. In particular, we studied the influence of activity on South American precipitations during centuries. First, we analyzed the stream flow of the Paraná and other rivers of the region, and found a very strong correlation with Sunspot Number in decadal time scales. We found a similar correlation between Sunspot Number and tree-ring chronologies, which allows us to extend our study to cover the last two centuries.
Based on our large spectral database obtained at CASLEO Argentinian Observatory, we analyzed the relation between simultaneous measurements of Hα and Ca ii H+K fluxes. Although the correlation between both proxies is positive for the solar case, in 2007 our group found that while some stars exhibit correlations between Hα and the Ca ii lines, the slopes change from star to star, including cases where no correlation was found. To discern if this flux-flux relation depends on the level of activity of the star and if it is associated with the distribution of active regions in the stellar atmosphere, in this work we analyze the relation between Hα-Ca ii fluxes for the whole set of 44 G dwarf stars and individually for a subset of several solar-type stars of different level of activity.
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