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There is mixed evidence on increasing rates of psychiatric disorders and symptoms during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020. We evaluated pandemic-related psychopathology and psychiatry diagnoses and their determinants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health (ELSA-Brasil) São Paulo Research Center.
Between pre-pandemic ELSA-Brasil assessments in 2008–2010 (wave-1), 2012–2014 (wave-2), 2016–2018 (wave-3) and three pandemic assessments in 2020 (COVID-19 waves in May–July, July–September, and October–December), rates of common psychiatric symptoms, and depressive, anxiety, and common mental disorders (CMDs) were compared using the Clinical Interview Scheduled-Revised (CIS-R) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Multivariable generalized linear models, adjusted by age, gender, educational level, and ethnicity identified variables associated with an elevated risk for mental disorders.
In 2117 participants (mean age 62.3 years, 58.2% females), rates of CMDs and depressive disorders did not significantly change over time, oscillating from 23.5% to 21.1%, and 3.3% to 2.8%, respectively; whereas rate of anxiety disorders significantly decreased (2008–2010: 13.8%; 2016–2018: 9.8%; 2020: 8%). There was a decrease along three wave-COVID assessments for depression [β = −0.37, 99.5% confidence interval (CI) −0.50 to −0.23], anxiety (β = −0.37, 99.5% CI −0.48 to −0.26), and stress (β = −0.48, 99.5% CI −0.64 to −0.33) symptoms (all ps < 0.001). Younger age, female sex, lower educational level, non-white ethnicity, and previous psychiatric disorders were associated with increased odds for psychiatric disorders, whereas self-evaluated good health and good quality of relationships with decreased risk.
No consistent evidence of pandemic-related worsening psychopathology in our cohort was found. Indeed, psychiatric symptoms slightly decreased along 2020. Risk factors representing socioeconomic disadvantages were associated with increased odds of psychiatric disorders.
Entamoeba histolytica is a major cause of dysentery that leads to a high level of morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. Calmodulin-like calcium binding protein EhCaBP3 of E. histolytica is directly involved in disease mechanisms with roles in cytoskeleton dynamics and scission during erythrophagocytosis in a calcium dependent fashion. Interestingly, EhCaBP3 is also present in the nucleus of E. histolytica. We have used a transfected cell system to show that EhCaBP3 is capable of calcium dependent nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Our data confirms and extends recent findings suggesting presence of a calcium dependent nuclear transport pathway in E. histolytica.
Growing research indicates that police legitimacy is a strong predictor of whether people behave respecting or violating rules. Perceptions of legitimacy are an output of socializing processes through which individuals develop their values and orientations toward authorities and the legal system. Legal socialization studies show that encounters with legal authorities are critical “teachable moments” in this process. The present study verifies whether direct or vicarious negative contacts with police officers affect changes in the perception of the legitimacy of police authority by adolescents over time. The adolescents were classified according to whether or not they had witnessed or experienced any negative contact or experience with the police during the period before the interview, composing two group trajectories at the first wave, four at the second wave, and eight at the third wave. Then the trajectories were compared in terms of the extent to which they agree with statements about police legitimacy, allowing the quantification of changes of opinion after negative contacts with the police. Results show that three main factors diminish the perception of police legitimacy: having negative contact with the police; having more than one negative contact; and having a recent negative contact. These findings have important implications for police patrolling and approach strategies.
Denture-related stomatitis caused by Candida spp. affects elderly individuals using partial/total prosthesis, provoking several discomforts including burning sensation and altered taste. Herein, we have studied 52 denture-wearing individuals (>60 years-old), attended at the dentistry clinic of UNIVALE, aiming to isolate Candida spp. directly from the stomatitis lesions and to evaluate their potential to produce virulence attributes. A low prevalence of denture-related stomatitis was reported in these patients (4/52; 7.7%). Candida albicans was isolated in the 4 selected patients, with the ability to form biofilm over a polystyrene surface and to produce aspartic protease, esterase and hemolysin. However, neither phospholipase nor caseinase activities were detected. Planktonic-growing yeasts were susceptible to amphotericin B and caspofungin, while the susceptibility to azoles (fluconazol, itraconazole and voriconazole) varied depending on either the isolate or antifungal. Relevantly, biofilm-forming C. albicans cells exhibited resistance to all studied antifungals. So, new effective drugs against resistant C. albicans isolates causing denture-related stomatitis are urgently required.
To assess the prevalence of mood disorders in Brazilian soldiers.
A total of 353 soldiers answered the following questionnaires: the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Profile of Mood States (POMS), the medical outcomes study SF-36 questionnaire, the Baecke questionnaire to assess the level of habitual physical activity (HPA) and the socioeconomic (SE) status questionnaire. Participants were classified according to their desire to pursue a military career.
Accordingly, 246 participants were allocated to a volunteer group (VG) and 107 to a non-volunteer group (NVG). According to the BDI data for both groups, 66.5% of the soldiers showed at least mild depressive symptoms. Additionally, the STAI data revealed that 27.8% and 8.4% of the soldiers showed high scores on state anxiety and trait anxiety, respectively. The POMS scores were higher in the NVG compared to the VG (Δ%=+263%, p<0.0001). Of the eight subscales, the SF-36 questionnaire showed statistical differences between the groups in the following five dimensions: functioning capacity (p = 0.0046), pain (p = 0.0011), vitality (p < 0.0001), role limitations due to emotional problems (p < 0.0001) and mental health (p < 0.0001).
Mood disorder levels were higher and health status and related quality of life levels were lower in the NVG as compared to the VG.
Bycatch is one of the main threats to marine biodiversity, affecting ocean ecosystems at a worldwide scale. The main focus of bycatch studies has been on the impact of larger vessels, with few studies assessing the impact of artisanal fisheries. Moreover, bycatch studies are often limited to a small number of marine regions, and significant gaps still exist in our knowledge of the spatial and temporal patterns of seabird bycatch. Here we present a multi-approach method to accurately quantify seabird bycatch driven by small- and medium-sized fishing fleets operating in a high priority area for seabird conservation on the Portuguese mainland. Results of three mitigation measures to reduce seabird bycatch on fishing gear where seabird bycatch is most likely to occur were also tested: high contrast panels in bottom gillnets, black hooks in demersal longlines and a bird scaring device in purse seines. The efficacy, acceptance, and economic viability were tested for each mitigation measure. Sixty-seven individuals of seven seabird species were bycaught during 295 monitored fishing trips between 2015 and 2018. Bycatch occurred mainly in demersal longlines (0.07 birds fishing event-1), followed by purse seines (0.02 birds fishing event-1) and bottom gillnets (0.01 birds fishing event-1). Nevertheless, the bird scaring device caused birds to interact less with the vessel (the presence of gulls was reduced by 11%), thus decreasing the likelihood of bycatch. This device has proved to be low-cost (representing less than 5% income of a single day’s landings) and easy to implement, being also well accepted by purse seine fishermen. It was not possible to evaluate the efficacy of high contrast panels and black hooks, as no bycatch events were recorded during trials.
The study described in this Research Communication investigated the genotypic and phenotypic profiles of resistance to beta-lactams and other antimicrobials in non-aureus Staphylococci (NAS) isolated from buffalo, goat and sheep mastitis in the Northeast region of Brazil. A total of 190 isolates were analyzed and 42.3, 43.9 and 23.6% of them were positive for blaZ gene in buffalo, goat and sheep, respectively. Regarding the animal groups, in goats, amoxicillin was the antimicrobial with highest resistance index (72.7%), followed by penicillin G in buffaloes (51.9%) and ampicillin in sheep (43.1%). With regard to multiple antimicrobial resistance, 30.8% of NAS isolates from buffalo milk samples, 25.8% from goats and 25.0% from sheep presented multidrug-resistance. In the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) technique, amoxicillin MIC50 and MIC90 were 64 and 128 μg/ml, respectively, among isolates of the three animal species. In conclusion, high rates of resistance to beta-lactams are presented among NAS isolated from mastitis cases in buffaloes, goats and sheep in Northeast region of Brazil. These results provide an alert to animal and human health researchers, suggesting that the frequency of NAS needs to be reduced because they carry resistance genes which might increase the existing levels of antimicrobial resistance.
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) states that intrauterine maternal environment influences postnatal life by programming offspring’s metabolism. Intrauterine milieu induced by exercise during pregnancy promotes long-lasting benefits to the offspring’s health and seems to offer some resistance against chronic diseases in adult life. Alzheimer’s disease is a public health concern with limited treatment options. In the present study, we assessed the potential of maternal exercise during pregnancy in long-term programming of young adult male rat offspring’s cerebellar metabolism in conferring neuroprotection against amyloid-β (Aβ) neurotoxicity. Female Wistar rats were submitted to a swimming protocol 1 week prior mating and throughout pregnancy (five sessions/a week lasting 30 min). Aβ oligomers were infused bilaterally in the brain ventricles of 60-day-old male offspring. Fourteen days after surgery, we measured parameters related to redox state, mitochondrial function, and the immunocontent of proteins related to synaptic function. We found that maternal exercise during pregnancy attenuated several parameters in the offspring’s male rat cerebellum, such as the reactive species rise, the increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase immunocontent and tau phosphorylation induced by Aβ oligomers, increased mitochondrial fission indicated by dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), and protein oxidation identified by carbonylation. Strikingly, we find that maternal exercise promotes changes in the rat offspring’s cerebellum that are still evident in young adult life. These favorable neurochemical changes in offspring’s cerebellum induced by maternal exercise may contribute to a protective phenotype against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in young adult male rat offspring.
The timing of the Neanderthal-associated Middle Palaeolithic demise and a possible overlap with anatomically modern humans (AMH) in some regions of Eurasia continues to be debated. The Iberian Peninsula is considered a possible refuge zone for the last Neanderthals, but the chronology of the later Middle Palaeolithic record has undergone revision and has increased the debate on the timing of Neanderthal extinction. Here we report on a study of the 5-m-thick archaeological stratigraphy of the Cardina-Salto do Boi, an open-air site located in inland Iberia, from which optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages were obtained for Middle and Upper Palaeolithic occupations preserved in overbank alluvial deposits. Geomorphology, archaeostratigraphy, stone-tool evolution, and OSL dating support the persistence of Neanderthals after 41 ka in central Iberia; the transition between the Middle Palaeolithic material culture and the AMH-associated Aurignacian blade and bladelet production is estimated to lie between 34.0 ± 2.0 ka and 38.4 ± 1.9 ka. Our results demonstrate that investigations focusing on different geomorphological situations are necessary to overcome the current limitations of the evidence and to establish more consistent models for Neanderthal disappearance and AMH expansion in the Iberian Peninsula.
Failure to adjust doses may contribute to adverse events. We evaluated the effectiveness of providing the estimated glomerular filtration rate on appropriateness of dosing for antimicrobials. The approach increased appropriateness of dosing from 33.9% to 41.4% (P < .001). Nudging prescription behavior can boost strategies for adequate antimicrobial prescription.
Depression is highly prevalent and marked by a chronic and recurrent course. Despite being a major cause of disability worldwide, little is known regarding the determinants of its heterogeneous course. Machine learning techniques present an opportunity to develop tools to predict diagnosis and prognosis at an individual level.
We examined baseline (2008–2010) and follow-up (2012–2014) data of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a large occupational cohort study. We implemented an elastic net regularization analysis with a 10-fold cross-validation procedure using socioeconomic and clinical factors as predictors to distinguish at follow-up: (1) depressed from non-depressed participants, (2) participants with incident depression from those who did not develop depression, and (3) participants with chronic (persistent or recurrent) depression from those without depression.
We assessed 15 105 and 13 922 participants at waves 1 and 2, respectively. The elastic net regularization model distinguished outcome levels in the test dataset with an area under the curve of 0.79 (95% CI 0.76–0.82), 0.71 (95% CI 0.66–0.77), 0.90 (95% CI 0.86–0.95) for analyses 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
Diagnosis and prognosis related to depression can be predicted at an individual subject level by integrating low-cost variables, such as demographic and clinical data. Future studies should assess longer follow-up periods and combine biological predictors, such as genetics and blood biomarkers, to build more accurate tools to predict depression course.
The co-infection between visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has increased in several countries in the world. The current serological tests are not suitable since they present low sensitivity to detect the most of VL/HIV cases, and a more precise diagnosis should be performed. In this context, in the present study, an immunoproteomics approach was performed using Leishmania infantum antigenic extracts and VL, HIV and VL/HIV patients sera, besides healthy subjects samples; aiming to identify antigenic markers for these clinical conditions. Results showed that 43 spots were recognized by antibodies in VL and VL/HIV sera, and 26 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Between them, β-tubulin was expressed, purified and tested in ELISA experiments as a proof of concept for validation of our immunoproteomics findings and results showed high sensitivity and specificity values to detect VL and VL/HIV patients. In conclusion, the identified proteins in the present work could be considered as candidates for future studies aiming to improvement of the diagnosis of VL and VL/HIV co-infection.
Suicide is the deliberate act of take off life to itself. According to WHO, more than one million people commit suicide every year.
Compare data of suicide attempts between 1996 and 2014 in the University Hospital of Valladolid. Influence of the economic crisis on suicide data. Expose the risk factors. Provide prevention strategies.
Material and methods
We have performed a study of epidemiological surveillance collecting descriptive data of suicide attempts; using the same methodology as in 1996. The variables studied were: sex, age, day, month, residence, method, personal status, education, employment status, religious believes, family history of suicide, psychiatric history and family and personal psychiatric history.
Increase in the rate of suicide attempts 27%. Distribution by sex is similar, but in 2014, a higher proportion was observed in males. The percentage of women is significantly higher than that of men in the group of teenagers (10–19 years old) (20% women vs. 4.5% of men; P = 0.005); 83.5% have a psychiatric diagnosis (54.2% of them have a depressive disorder). Unemployment and economic problems stand out as environmental stressors in 2014. The main suicide method used in Valladolid is the hanging, and the second method used is the precipitation.
The primary, secondary and tertiary prevention strategies are very important. Suicide is the major cause of mortality in the young age group (15–24 years old). Mortality in the general population has been on a downward trend; but suicide rates per 100,000 population has remained stable over the last decade.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Scedosporium and Lomentospora species are ubiquitous saprophytic filamentous fungi that emerged as human pathogens with impressive multidrug-resistance profile. The ability to form biofilm over several biotic and abiotic surfaces is one of the characteristics that contributes to their resistance patterns against almost all currently available antifungals. Herein, we have demonstrated that Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium minutisporum, Scedosporium aurantiacum and Lomentospora prolificans were able to form biofilm, in similar amounts, when conidial cells were incubated in a polystyrene substrate containing Sabouraud medium supplemented or not with different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) of glucose, fructose, sucrose and lactose. Likewise, the glucose supplementation of culture media primarily composed of amino acids (SCFM, synthetic cystic fibrosis medium) and salts (YNB, yeast nitrogen base) did not modulate the biofilm formation of Scedosporium/Lomentospora species. Collectively, the present data reinforce the ability of these opportunistic fungi to colonize and to build biofilm structures under different environmental conditions.
As a reaction against contemporary democracy's inherent short-sightedness in solving problems that are likely to affect distant future generations, there has been a recent increase in proposals for different kinds of democratic representation of future persons. This article shows that even though there can be no such thing as political representation of future persons, the relevant affected interests of the as-yet unborn can still be taken into consideration in political decision making. This aim is achieved by focusing on the political representation of children as special cases of semi-future members of the class of the represented.
Essential oils (EOs) are considered a new class of ecological products aimed at the control of insects for industrial and domestic use; however, there still is a lack of studies involving the control of fleas. Ctenocephalides felis felis, the most observed parasite in dogs and cats, is associated with several diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity, the establishment of LC50 and toxicity of EOs from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B. L. Burtt & R. M. Sm, Cinnamomum spp., Laurus nobilis L., Mentha spicata L., Ocimum gratissimum L. and Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle against immature stages and adults of C. felis felis. Bioassay results suggest that the method of evaluation was able to perform a pre-screening of the activity of several EOs, including the discriminatory evaluation of flea stages by their LC50. Ocimum gratissimum EO was the most effective in the in vitro assays against all flea stages, presenting adulticide (LC50 = 5.85 μg cm−2), ovicidal (LC50 = 1.79 μg cm−2) and larvicidal (LC50 = 1.21 μg cm−2) mortality at low doses. It also presented an excellent profile in a toxicological eukaryotic model. These findings may support studies involving the development of non-toxic products for the control of fleas in dogs and cats.
Birthweight (BW) has been associated with anthropometry, body composition and physical fitness during growth and development of children. However, less is known about the mediation effect of those variables on the relationship between BW and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in children.
To analyse the mediation effect of anthropometry, body composition and physical fitness on the association between BW and BMR in children.
In total, 499 children (254 boys, 245 girls) aged 7–10 years were included. Anthropometry (weight, height, head, waist and hip circumferences), body composition (skinfolds thickness, body fat percentage), physical fitness (handgrip strength, flexibility, muscular endurance, muscular explosive power, agility, running speed) and BMR were evaluated. The analyses were conducted by: single-mediator analysis (SMA) and multi-mediator analysis (MMA).
The SMA indicates height, head, waist and hip circumferences and handgrip strength as significant mediators of BW on BMR for boys and height, hip circumference and handgrip strength as significant mediators of BW on BMR for girls. In MMA for girls, there were significant indirect effects for height, hip circumference and handgrip strength, with 79.08% of percent mediation. For boys, the head and waist circumferences mediation had a significant indirect effect, with 83.37% of percent mediation.
The anthropometric variables associated with BW were body height, head, hip and waist circumferences for boys and body height and hip circumference for girls. The current study provides new evidence that height and handgrip strength during childhood mediated the relationship between BW and BMR.