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Recent years have seen a resurgence of scholarly interest across disciplines around the concept “creolization” even as there has been some pushback against this development in other academic quarters. This article contextualizes this state of art around “creolization” and presents an analytical overview of the term’s discursive history. First, I discuss the appearance of the term creole in several areas of the world as an epiphenomenon of the first wave of European expansionism from the fifteenty century onward. Second, I track the emergence of “Creole” as an analytical category within nineteenth-century philology and its further development within linguistics. Third, I focus on milestones in the move of “creole” to “creolization” as a category for theorists of culture. Finally, I discuss recuperations of creolization as a theoretical model, including my own work that articulates it together with theoretical approaches to archipelagos.
In this paper, a novel approach for simultaneously correcting multiple degraded patterns under the failure condition of time-modulated linear arrays is proposed. The approach is based on the use of trapezoidal pulse with non-zero rise/fall time to control the switching status of the radio frequency switches that enables ON-OFF keying modulation of the array elements. After deriving a closed form expression of harmonic power loss and through the in-depth analysis, it is explored that the proposed trapezoidal pulse, because of having non-zero rise/fall time, provides less undesired harmonic power loss as compared to the conventionally used rectangular pulse with ideally zero rise/fall time. With the aim of reconstructing the degraded patterns with improved directivity and suppressed higher sideband power, three pulse-switching strategies based on rectangular and trapezoidal pulse have been employed, and their comparative performances prove the superiority of the proposed approach.
The magnetic resonance linear accelerator system (MR Linac) is a novel piece of radiotherapy (RT) equipment allowing the routine application of daily MR-guided treatment adaptation. The hardware design required for such technical capabilities and the increased complexity of the treatment workflow entails a notable departure from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based RT. Patient tolerability of treatment is paramount to RT practice where high compliance is required. Presented is a comparative analysis of how such modality specific characteristics may ultimately impact the patient experience of treatment.
Materials and Methods:
Forty patients undergoing RT for prostate cancer (PCa) on either the MR Linac (n = 20) or a CBCT-based linac (n = 20) were provided with a validated patient reported outcomes measures (PROM’s) questionnaire at fraction 1 and fraction 20. The 18-item questionnaire provided patient responses recorded using a 4-point Likert scale, 0 denoting a response of ‘Not at all’, 1 ‘Slightly’, 2 ‘Moderately’ and 3 signifying ‘Very’. The analysis provided insight into both comparisons between modalities at singular time points (fractions 1 and 20), as well as a temporal analysis within a single modality, denoting changing patient experience.
Patients generally found the MR Linac treatment couch more comfortable, however, found the increase in treatment duration harder to tolerate. Responses for all items remained stable between first and last fraction across both cohorts, indicating minimal temporal variation within a single modality. None of the responses were statistically significant at the 0·01 level.
Whether radiotherapy for PCa is delivered on a CBCT linac or the MR Linac, there is little difference in patient experience with minimal experiential variation within a single modality.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To describe a study to develop, test, and collect implementation data on a youth-led hypertension (HTN) education digital intervention that acts as an electronic tool to guide youth through learning and then teaching adults on how to achieve better HTN control. Adults with uncontrolled HTN are recruited from a New Jersey emergency department (ED). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Adults with HTN and youth (15-18 years) participate in a remote user-centered design session focus group to provide input in the development of the youth-led HTN education digital intervention. 100 adult ED patients with uncontrolled HTN (blood pressure (BP) â‰¥130/80 mm Hg) who live with a youth (15-18 years) and the youth themselves are recruited for a randomized control trial (RCT). The adult-youth dyad is randomized to one of two arms, each a 6-week program with youth earning a digital badge: 1) intervention- youth-led HTN education with the adult, or 2) control- youth learn life skills (such as job readiness/resume building). Implementation metrics are collected through a post-intervention survey and qualitative interviews on the digital badge intervention including acceptability, feasibility, and fidelity. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We completed two youth focus groups (total of 8 participants) and data collection is ongoing. Youth have shown great interest in the intervention prototype and thought their peers would find it acceptable. They suggested additions to nutrition education activities, such as adding a sodium tracker and examples of high sodium foods. For the RCT, the primary study outcome is adult BP change (from baseline to 1 week and 2-months post-intervention), with secondary outcomes of HTN knowledge and youth self-efficacy. We anticipate that intervention arm adults will have a more significant decrease in BP than control arm adults. We also expect that HTN knowledge and youth self-efficacy will be higher for the intervention arm. Implementation data collected will allow for improvements to future renditions of the intervention. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Bringing health education home while simultaneously empowering youth is an innovative technology-driven model for improving BP for patients with uncontrolled HTN who may lack access to care. Outcomes of this project will result in a scalable and easily adoptable model to reach an otherwise difficult to reach adult population.
To assess ability of National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA), and CRB-65 calculated at the time of intensive care unit (ICU) admission for predicting ICU mortality in patients of laboratory confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection.
This prospective data analysis was based on chart reviews for laboratory confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs over a 1-mo period. The NEWS2, CRB-65, qSOFA, and SIRS were calculated from the first recorded vital signs upon admission to ICU and assessed for predicting mortality.
Total of 140 patients aged between 18 and 95 y were included in the analysis of whom majority were >60 y (47.8%), with evidence of pre-existing comorbidities (67.1%). The most common symptom at presentation was dyspnea (86.4%). Based upon the receiver operating characteristics area under the curve (AUC), the best discriminatory power to predict ICU mortality was for the CRB-65 (AUC: 0.720 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.630-0.811]) followed closely by NEWS2 (AUC: 0.712 [95% CI: 0.622-0.803]). Additionally, a multivariate Cox regression model showed Glasgow Coma Scale score at time of admission (P < 0.001; adjusted hazard ratio = 0.808 [95% CI: 0.715-0.911]) to be the only significant predictor of ICU mortality.
CRB-65 and NEWS2 scores assessed at the time of ICU admission offer only a fair discriminatory value for predicting mortality. Further evaluation after adding laboratory markers such as C-reactive protein and D-dimer may yield a more useful prediction model. Much of the earlier data is from developed countries and uses scoring at time of hospital admission. This study was from a developing country, with the scores assessed at time of ICU admission, rather than the emergency department as with existing data from developed countries, for patients with moderate/severe COVID-19 disease. Because the scores showed some utility for predicting ICU mortality even when measured at time of ICU admission, their use in allocation of limited ICU resources in a developing country merits further research.
Frontline health care workers exposed to COVID-19 patients could be at increased risk of developing psychological issues. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of mental health-related problems, specifically depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and insomnia among health care professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh and to compare these between medical and allied health care professionals.
This cross-sectional survey was conducted using Google Form then subsequent telephone interview between June and August 2020. Using random sampling, a total of 479 health care professionals participated in the study. We collected data on demographics. Anxiety and depression were measured using 4 items Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4), PTSD was measured using 4 items Primary Care (PC)-PTSD-Screen, and insomnia was measured by using a 7-item Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess risk factors associated with mental health symptoms.
Overall, 17.6% of frontline health workers had symptoms of anxiety, 15.5% had depression symptoms, 7.6% had PTSD symptoms and 5.9% had symptoms of insomnia. Compared to allied health professionals (n = 113, 24%), doctors (n = 366, 76%) had significantly higher prevalence of anxiety: 21.1% vs 06%, (OR = 4.19; 95% CI = 1.88–9.35; p-value <0.001); depression: 18% vs 6.8%, (OR = 2.99; 95% CI = 1.40–6.42; p-value 0.005); PTSD: 9.4% vs 1.7%, (OR = 5.96; 95% CI = 1.41–25.11; p-value 0.015) and insomnia: 7.4% vs 0.9%, (OR = 9.22; 95% CI = 1.24–68.4; p-value 0.03). Logistic regression analysis showed that pre-existing medical illness has significantly more risks of developing symptoms of anxiety (adjusted OR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.71–4.76; p-value <0.001) and depression (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.39–3.77; p-value 0.001). Having a postgraduate degree (adjusted OR = 6.13; 95% CI = 1.28–29.28; p-value 0.023) and working in secondary care setting (adjusted OR = 3.08; 95% CI = 1.18–8.02; p value 0.021) have significant predictors of developing anxiety symptoms among health workers. Those who had worked more than 6 weeks in COVID-19 dedicated hospitals had risk of developing symptoms of PSTD (OR = 2.83; 95% CI = 1.35–5.93; p value 0.006) and insomnia (OR = 2.63; 95% CI = 1.15–6.02; p value 0.022).
Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, PTSD, and insomnia among Bangladeshi frontline health workers (particularly among doctors) during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is an urgent need to address the mental health needs of frontline health workers.
Funding: Medical Research Council, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Several aspects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remain ambiguous, including its transmission, severity, geographic, and racial differences in mortality. These variations merit elaboration of local patterns to inform wider national policies.
In a retrospective analysis, data of patients treated at a dedicated COVID hospital with moderate and severe illness during 8 wk of the pandemic were reviewed with attention to mortality in a competing risks framework.
A total of 1147 patients were hospitalized, and 312 (27.2%) died in hospital. Those who died were older (56.5 vs 47.6 y; P < 0.0001). Of these, 885 (77.2%) had tested positive on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), with 219 (24.2%) deaths (incidence rate, 1.9 per 100 person-days). Median time from onset of symptoms to death was 11 days. A competing risks analysis for in-hospital death revealed an adjusted cause-specific hazard ratio of 1.4 for each decade increase in age.
This retrospective analysis provides broad patterns of disease presentation and mortality. Even COVID test-negative patients will receive treatment at dedicated facilities, and 33% presenting cases may die within the first 72 h, most with comorbid illness. This should be considered while planning distribution of services for effective health-care delivery
The mando is a secular song-and-dance genre of Goa whose archival attestations began in the 1860s. It is still danced today, in staged rather than social settings. Its lyrics are in Konkani, their musical accompaniment combine European and local instruments, and its dancing follows the principles of the nineteenth-century European group dances known as quadrilles, which proliferated in extra-European settings to yield various creolized forms. Using theories of creolization, archival and field research in Goa, and an understanding of quadrille dancing as a social and memorial act, this article presents the mando as a peninsular, Indic, creolized quadrille. It thus offers the first systematic examination of the mando as a nineteenth-century social dance created through processes of creolization that linked the cultural worlds of the Indian and Atlantic Oceans—a manifestation of what early twentieth-century Goan composer Carlos Eugénio Ferreira called a ‘rapsodia Ibero-Indiana’ (‘Ibero-Indian rhapsody’). I investigate the mando's kinetic, performative, musical, and linguistic aspects, its emergence from a creolization of mentalités that commenced with the advent of Christianity in Goa, its relationship to other dances in Goa and across the Indian and Atlantic Ocean worlds, as well as the memory of inter-imperial cultural encounters it performs. I thereby argue for a new understanding of Goa through the processes of transoceanic creolization and their reverberation in the postcolonial present. While demonstrating the heuristic benefit of theories of creolization to the study of peninsular Indic culture, I bring those theories to peninsular India to develop further their standard applications.
To assess the safety, sustainability, and effectiveness of a laboratory intervention to reduce processing of midstream urine (MSU) cultures.
Prospective observational cohort.
Medical and surgical inpatients in a tertiary-care hospital.
The study included 1,678 adult inpatients with an order for MSU culture.
From 2013 to 2019, ordered MSU cultures were not processed unless the laboratory was called. Patients were interviewed on days 0 and 4; from 2017 to 2019, day-30 follow-up was added. Primary outcome was serious adverse events due to not processing MSU cultures. Secondary outcomes were nonserious adverse events due to not processing MSU cultures, rates of MSU cultures submitted, proportion of MSU cultures processed, proportion of patients prescribed urinary tract infection (UTI)–directed antibiotics, and laboratory workload.
Among 912 and 459 patients followed to days 4 and 30, respectively, no serious adverse events attributable to not processing MSU cultures were identified. However, 6 patients (0.66%) had prolonged urinary symptoms potentially associated with not processing MSU cultures. We estimated that 4 patients missed having empiric antibiotics stopped in response to negative MSU cultures, and 99 antibiotic courses for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and 8 antibiotic-associated adverse events were avoided. The rate of submitted MSU samples and proportion of patients receiving empiric UTI-directed antibiotics did not change. The proportion of MSU cultures processed declined from 59% to 49% (P < .0001), and total laboratory workload was reduced by 185 hours.
De-adopting the processing of MSU cultures from medical and surgical inpatient units is safe and sustainable, and it reduces antibiotic prescriptions for ASB at a cost of prolonged urinary symptoms in a small proportion of patients.
The climax of the film Black Panther (directed by Ryan Coogler, 2018) shows the two heirs claiming the Black Panther’s mantle battling it out in a tunnel that is modernity's dark hull. My article teases out the complex relationship between the film’s doubled Black Panthers as a hall of mirrors, where the African American filmmaker and the assembled African and Afro-diasporic cast confront each other, their collective memories of slavery, and the complex relationship of those on the African continent to those memories. What in the structure of cinema might take us out of this hall of mirrors to a futurity beyond trauma? In answer, I offer a reading of Wakanda as “Alegropolis”: a lavish and loving cinematic creation that draws on Afro-Futurist play with temporality and technology to reinscribe this circum-Atlantic history within a planetary frame. An affiliative afro-modernity is generated thereby, which invites a global audience to share the film’s ethical and emotional concerns as what Michael Rothberg calls “implicated subjects.”
Meditation is associated with health benefits; however, there are reports that it may trigger or exacerbate psychotic states. In this review, we aim to collate case reports of psychotic disorders occurring in association with meditative practice and to discuss the relationship between psychosis and meditation.
We performed case-based analysis of all the existing studies published in English language using PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Scopus, EMBASE, CINAHL and Google Scholar with the search terms; ‘Psychosis’ OR ‘Psychotic Symptoms’ OR ‘Schizophrenia’ AND ‘Meditation.’
A total of 19 studies and 28 cases were included in the review. The patients described had an age range of 18–57 years; there was equal distribution of males and females. The diagnoses included acute psychosis in 14 cases, schizophrenia in 7 cases, mania with psychotic symptoms in 3 cases, and schizoaffective disorder in 1 case. The types of meditation described were Transcendent, Mindfulness, Buddhist Meditation like Qigong, Zen, and Theraveda, and others like Bikram yoga, Pranic Healing, and Hindustan Type meditation. Of the 28 cases reported, 14 patients had certain precipitating factors like insomnia, lack of food intake, history of mental illness, stress, and psychoactive substance use.
There are case reports of psychotic disorder arising in association with meditative practice; however, it is difficult to attribute a causal relationship between the two. At the same time, there is a body of research describing the beneficial effect of meditative practice in clinical settings for patients with psychotic disorders. Appropriately designed studies are needed to further investigate the relationship between meditative practice and psychosis.
This chapter reviews the systematics of partial melting of mantle lithologies – like peridotite and eclogite – in the presence of carbon dioxide. It discusses the composition of mantle-derived magmas generated in the presence of carbon dioxide and whether magmas erupted on Earth’s surface resemble carbonated magmas from the mantle. It reviews how the production of carbon dioxide-rich magma in the mantle varies as a function of tectonic settings – beneath continents and oceans and in subduction zones – and time.
This response to Arjun Appadurai’s paradigm piece “The Ready-Made Pleasures of déjà vu” turns on the example of the classic Bollywood song ‘Baar baar dekho’ (“Watch it again and again,”
Chinatown, 1962), to elaborate on the pleasures of cinematic repetition captured by Appadurai’s interest in “repeat viewing,” or “watching as if for the second time.” By proffering the template of “call and response,” which derives from Africanist kinesthetic principles, in dialogue with Appadurai’s appeal to an Indic investment in “re-call and re-turn,” I examine how the protocols and structures of “spontaneous” improvisation constitute a shared yet divergent basis for a global, modern politics of pleasure. Through this strategy of placing in percussive play two cultural systems of rhythmic repetition, I posit the redemptive potential of repetition as difference as an answer to political mobilizations of repetition against difference.
The polysaccharide alginate has received most extensive attention as bioink in bioprinting applications due to its ability to undergo gelation under cell-friendly conditions. However, absence of cell-binding motifs and the erratic degradation of alginate hydrogels have remained their persistent limitations. Honey is a conveniently available natural material, known for its role in wound healing and skin tissue regeneration. However, honey blending to improve biological response of alginate-based bioprinted scaffolds has not been yet reported. In the present work, honey-alginate bioinks were evaluated for their printability property (shape fidelity). It was found that honey blending reduced alginate viscosity, which gradually affected bioprinting fidelity. Therefore, the concentration that provides for acceptable bioprinting along with improvement in cell proliferations is determined. It is concluded that honey blending improves cell response of alginate bioinks and can be a facile approach to obtain bioinks especially for in situ skin tissue engineering applications.
This chapter draws from case studies of undocumented Bangladeshi women who are engaged in various informal-sector occupations in Maharashtra to highlight the multiple vulnerabilities and threats that they face due to both their status as undocumented migrants and their gender positioning in the informal labour market. Women in Bangladesh have long dealt with patriarchal institutions in all spheres of their lives. This, coupled with stubborn levels of poverty, the lack of adequate employment opportunities, and regressive migration policies for women, has led to the proliferation of hidden and parallel pathways for migration. While Bangladeshi men mostly migrate to countries in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, India remains one of the dominant destinations for undocumented Bangladeshi women. Using a mixed-methods approach, the chapter highlights the vulnerabilities and agency of Bangladeshi women in the face of extortive labour relations, weak gender positions, and socio-political vulnerabilities.
Keywords: undocumented migration, Maharashtra, informal sector, gender, labour
Taslima, an 18-year-old widow from Satkhira, is one of the many Bangladeshi women struggling to eke out a living in India. After her husband died of stomach cancer merely two years into their marriage, she and her one-year-old son were shunned by her in-laws. One of her relatives introduced her to a dalal (‘broker’), who promised her employment in Mumbai for a fee of about US$65. She now works as a labourer at a construction site some 300 kilometres away from Mumbai making a little over US$70 per month. Although the work is strenuous, she says that she prefers it to scrubbing pots and pans in exchange for meals at a relative's house in Bangladesh. Women like Taslima display agency in deciding to migrate for employment, given that their choices are limited by their geographical, social, and economic positioning. However, since their migration experiences do not fit into the statist conceptualizations of trafficked, coerced, or at-risk women, their vulnerabilities remain largely unaddressed within the migration paradigm.
Migration in South Asia follows gendered binaries: while most males are considered economic migrants, women are often seen as dependent migrants accompanying males – especially because of the prevalence of systems like virilocal marriage. The stereotypes of ‘exotic mail-order brides, docile domestic workers, and/or distressed refugees and sex workers’ typify the image of women migrants within this region (Joseph & Narendran 2013: 12).
The prominent release in early 2010 of My Name is Khan, the Shahrukh Khan film that potently brings together autism, 9/11 and Indian Muslim identity, has prompted several commentators on Indian cinema to return to an old question: the portrayal of the Indian Muslim as a minority subject within Bollywood (Kesavan, 2007). Earlier an operation to be delicately executed in step with the Nehruvian consensus on secularism – an emblematic film here being Amar Akbar Anthony – the relationship between cinema and Indian Muslim identity (Islam, 2007; Kazmi, 1994) took on an even more complicated turn after 9/11 and 26/11 (the attack on the Indian Parliament on 26 November, 2008). In the episode entitled ‘Hindi Films: Stereotyping Muslims’ of her signature television programme We the People, journalist Barkha Dutt (2010) can now add the ‘ominous terrorist’ to the list of stereotyped Muslim characters that the Indian media circulates, such as ‘the drunk nawab’ or ‘the benevolent chacha’ (uncle). If, according to the anonymous article ‘Indian Muslims’ (2010), the average Indian Muslim viewer appreciated My Name Is Khan as a film about terrorism ‘where the central character that stands out against this does it not in spite of his upbringing and religion but because of it’, this appreciation is all the stronger because of several films prior to its release that attempted to narrativize the implications of the War on Terror for India.
In these films, notably New York, Aamir and Kurbaan, the protagonists were Indian Muslims caught up in the aftermath of terror; but the filmmakers failed to break out of the assumption that for an Indian Muslim to display publicly any relationship or attachment to everyday Islamic tenets was immediately to render him or her susceptible to ‘terrorist’ ideologies. Indeed, for Bollywood, practicing terrorist and practicing Muslim would seem collapsible categories. If, as Arun Venugopal (2010) opines, ‘In Indian movies, the terrorist isn't some veiled abstraction: He's your brother (Fiza, 2000) or house guest (Black and White, 2008) or the woman you couldn't live without (Dil Se, 1998)’, it should be added that in all these ‘terrorist’ films, apart from Dil Se (Kabir, 2003), the terrorist protagonist is Muslim.
Magnetic hyperthermia is a non-invasive cancer treatment method which is used
synergistically with the current cancer treatments. Improved biocompatibility
and enhanced heating characteristics are the pressing challenges to be addressed
in magnetic hyperthermia. Through a novel combinatorial approach, we have
attempted to address both the challenges. Ferrimagneticmagnetite nanoparticles
(FMNPs)of size 50 nm were synthesized by thermal decomposition method and were
converted to hydrophilic phase by 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS). Serum
Albumin (SA) from rat was conjugated over the APTMS-FMNPs to convert to
biocompatible phase. The preliminary haemolysis experiments show that SA-FMNPs
are non-haemolytic (1.2 % haemolysis). It is observed from the magnetic heating
experiments that due to better colloidal stability, the Specific Absorption Rate
value of the SA-FMNPs are higher (2100 W/g) than the FMNPs without SA (1400
W/g). Thus we report here that SA conjugation over FMNPs (with a high saturation
magnetization of 75 emu/g) provides a novel combinatorial approach to enhance
both the biocompatibility and the SAR value for magnetic hyperthermia.
Oh spell it out, spell it out: at the precise instant of India's arrival at independence, I tumbled forth into the world. There were gasps. And, outside the window, fireworks and crowds. A few seconds later, my father broke his big toe; but his accident was a mere trifle when set beside what had befallen me in that benighted moment, because thanks to the occult tyrannies of those blandly saluting clocks I had been mysteriously handcuffed to history, my destinies indissolubly chained to those of my country.
– Salman Rushdie, Midnight's Children(p. 3)
With these now-famous words begins one of the most iconic Indian novels written in English, a work that is widely recognized as having changed the course of not just the novel from India but postcolonial writing from South Asia at large. Is it mere coincidence that Midnight's Children, which in 1981 announced to an unsuspecting world a new idiom of fiction altogether – brash, jocular, daring, and deeply clever – should center thus on “the precise instant of India's arrival at independence ”? The response I would offer, and which forms the basic premise of this chapter, is: no. This novel, unfettered as it seems by the need to genuflect to established models of correctness and decorum presented to the Indian novelist by the weight of colonial history, is actually as “handcuffed” to that history as its protagonist. Specifically, it is handcuffed to that pivotal moment when the colonial era ended and the postcolonial moment began – a moment that, for India and Pakistan (and, in a more complicated way, for Bangladesh), brought together the triumph of independence with its dark side, the trauma of Partition. In these opening sentences, Rushdie already signals this duality through the juxtaposition of celebratory and auspicious signifiers (fireworks, crowds, the birth of a child) with hints of inauspiciousness, inexplicability, and coercion (accidents, however bathetic, “occult tyrannies,” handcuffs, and chains). This is a duality that unfolds in its full tragicomic magnificence in the course of the novel.
In this chapter I argue that Rushdie's Midnight's Children is neither the first nor the only Indian novel in English to be thus handcuffed to the history of Partition – though it is certainly the first novel to announce this condition so meta-fictively.