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To describe the experience with Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus-Deep Brain Stimulation (ANT-DBS) for the treatment of epilepsy at a Canadian Center.
All patients who underwent ANT-DBS implantation between 2013 (first patient implanted at our center) and 2020 were included. These patients had therapy-resistant epilepsy (TRE), were not candidates for resective surgery, and failed vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) treatment. Baseline of monthly seizure frequency was calculated within 3 months prior to VNS placement. Monthly seizure frequency was assessed at different points along the timeline: 3 months before ANT-DBS implantation as well as 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 months after ANT-DBS device placement. At each time point, seizure frequency was compared to baseline.
Six patients were implanted with ANT-DBS. Three (50%) patients had multifocal epilepsy, one (16.6%) had focal epilepsy, and two (33.4%) had combined generalized and focal epilepsy. Two patients with multifocal epilepsy experienced a seizure reduction >50% in the long-term follow-up. Three (50%) patients did not showed improvement: two with combined generalized and focal epilepsy and one with focal epilepsy. There were not surgical or device-related side effects. Two (33.3%) patients presented mild and transient headaches as a stimulation-related side effect.
ANT-DBS is an effective and safe treatment for focal TRE. Our experience suggests that patients with multifocal epilepsy due to regional lesion may benefit from ANT-DBS the most. Further investigations are required to determine optimal parameters of stimulation.
“Temporal plus” epilepsy (TPE) is a term that is used when the epileptogenic zone (EZ) extends beyond the boundaries of the temporal lobe. Stereotactic electroencephalography (SEEG) has been essential to identify additional EZs in adjacent structures that might be part of the temporal lobe/limbic network.
We present a small case series of temporal plus cases successfully identified by SEEG who were seizure-free after resective surgery.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of 156 patients who underwent SEEG in 5 years. Six cases had TPE and underwent anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) with additional extra-temporal resections.
Five cases had a focus on the right hemisphere and one on the left. Three cases were non-lesional and three were lesional. Mean follow-up time since surgery was 2.9 years (SD ± 1.8). Three patients had subdural electrodes investigation prior or in addition to SEEG. All patients underwent standard ATL and additional extra-temporal resections during the same procedure or at a later date. All patients were seizure-free at their last follow-up appointment (Engel Ia = 3; Engel Ib = 2; Engel Ic = 1). Pathology was nonspecific/gliosis for all six cases.
TPE might explain some of the failures in temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. We present a small case series of six patients in whom SEEG successfully identified this phenomenon and surgery proved effective.
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