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This study aimed to analyze stress, anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy levels among Spanish out-of-hospital emergency medical professionals from February 1, 2021, to April 30, 2021.
A nationwide survey was completed by 1666 Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workers. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) were used. Data analysis used chi-squared, análisis of variance (ANOVA), and logistic regressions.
The sample comprised 833 (50%) men, with an average age of 44.3 ± 9.9 y (range: 19-67 y). Occupational distribution included 453 (27.2%) physicians, 474 (28.4%) nurses, and 739 (44.4%) emergency medical technicians (EMTs). EMTs exhibited higher odds of severe or extremely severe depression compared with physicians (odds ratio [OR]: 1.569; 95% confidenceinterval [95% CI]: 1.213-2.030) and nurses (OR: 1.561; 95% CI: 1.211-2.012). EMTs also displayed higher probabilities of severe or extremely severe anxiety compared with nurses (OR: 1.944; 95% CI: 1.529-2.701). Furthermore, EMTs demonstrated elevated probabilities of severe or extremely severe stress compared with physicians (OR: 1.387; 95% CI: 1.088-1.770). However, no significant differences were found in self-efficacy, with a median value of 73 .
Out-of-hospital EMS workers experienced mental health challenges, showing varying levels of depression, stress, and anxiety across different occupational groups. EMTs were particularly affected.