Background: Hospital-acquired Clostridioides difficile infection (HA-CDI) is a major infection control challenge. Using whole-genome sequencing, <40% of HA-CDI cases have been estimated to have been acquired from other inpatient cases. Huge regional variations have been described depending on the prevalence of epidemic ribotypes. We hypothesized that, according to the geographical area, variations in HA-CDI rates between hospitals could be attributable either to differences in infection control policies or to antimicrobial consumption. Objectives: To assess the association of HA-MRSA rates (a surrogate marker of infection control policies) and antimicrobial consumption with HA-CDI incidence from 2011 to 2018 in hospitals reporting at the VINCat-program (Infection Control and Antimicrobial Stewardship Catalan Program). Methods: Data on 45 hospitals in Catalonia (with 70.5% of all adult acute-care hospital beds) reporting antimicrobial consumption, HA-MRSA, and HA-CDI new cases to the VINCat-program since 2011 to 2018 were analyzed. To report antimicrobial consumption, the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) defined daily dose (DDD) index 2018 was used. Participating hospitals were classified into 3 groups according to size: group 1 (>500 beds), 9 hospitals; group 2 (500–200 beds), 15 hospitals; and group 3 (<200 beds), 21 hospitals. The number of hospitalization days recorded at the participating hospitals increased from 2,828,101 in 2011 to 3,201,680 in 2018. To analyze the association between HA-MRSA rate, antimicrobial consumption and the rate of CDI-HA, a Poisson regression model was used. HA-CDI annually new cases have been defined as a dependent variable, the stays as an offset of the model and the HA-MRSA rates and antimicrobial consumption (measured in DDD) as independent factors. The exponents of model coefficients are equal to incidence rate ratios (IRR). Results: The regression model showed an association of with antimicrobial consumption with HA-CDI (IRR,1.05; 95% CI, 1.03–1.07; P < .001) and a lack of association with HA-MRSA (IRR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.46–1.48; P = .52). Conclusions: The HA-CDI incidence rate grew annually by 5% for an increase of 1 DDD in annual antibiotic consumption. No association HA-MRSA rates was detected, suggesting that antimicrobial stewardship programs are urgently needed to improve the control of HA-CDI in Catalonia, a geographical area with a low prevalence of epidemic ribotypes.
Disclosures: Juan Pablo Horcajada reports consulting fees from MSD, Pfizer, and Menarini and speaker honoraria from MSD, Pfizer, and Zambon.