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The benefits of consuming soy and its protein have been reported in many studies. However, its phytoestrogen content raises concerns about consumption during lactation and gestation We therefore examined the effects of soybean or soy protein isolate on the parameters-related cardiovascular pathophysiology in lactating mothers and their offsprings at weaning and adulthood. Lactating rats were divided: casein control (C); soy protein isolate (SPI); and soybean (S). At weaning, half of the litter received commercial ration up to 150 days. The levels of 17-β-estradiol and superoxide dismutase were low in the S mothers. For the SPI mothers, we observed a reduction of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). At weaning, atherogenic indices [1 = total cholesterol (TC)/HDL; 2 = LDL/HDL; 3 = TC-HDL/HDL)] decreased in the S and SPI offsprings compared to the casein control group; TBARS and antioxidant enzymes increased in the S offspring, while reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio increased in the SPI offspring, indicating lower oxidative stress. In adulthood, the SPI offspring showed an increase in liver cholesterol and atherogenic index 1 and 3 (vs. C and S) and 2 (vs. S). In addition, we found a decrease in catecholamines in the adrenal medulla and an increase in caffeine-stimulated secretion, but tyrosine hydroxylase expression remained constant. Maternal consumption of SPI during lactation worsened atherogenic indices of the offsprings in adulthood, which was associated with increased liver cholesterol and decreased catecholamines in the adrenal medulla. Soy consumption had no consistent long-term effects on the evaluated parameters compared to casein consumption. The data suggest that the consumption of SPI during lactation should be done with caution.
Increased fat and carbohydrate intakes based on the Western diet are important lifestyle modifications that lead to hypercaloric inputs, obesity, and male fertility negative effects. Epigenetic transmission may also predispose descended generations to chronic diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, behavioral, and reproductive disorders. The present study sought to evaluate the influence of a high-fat-high-sugar (HFHS) diet supplied to Wistar rats from 25 to 90 days of life on reproductive and metabolic parameters in male generations F0, F1, and F2. The standard group received the normocaloric – Nuvilab Quimtia® –3.86 kcal/kg. The hypercaloric diet (HD) group received the HFHS diet – PragSoluções® –4.77 kcal/kg. Body weight, adiposity, F1 and F2 prepubertal age evaluations, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, organ weights, sperm count and morphology assessments, and histometric testicular analyses were performed. The HFHS diet promoted dyslipidemia, higher adiposity, lower relative organ weights, and higher mean kidney weight, decreased mean testicle and parenchyma weights and lower height of seminiferous epithelium (HE) for the F0 generation. F1 and F2 offspring of HD group displayed early preprepubertal development, although did not alter the metabolic parameters. Decreased HE and tubular testicular compartment volumetric density and increased intertubular testicular compartment volumetric density and volume in the F1 generation of HD group were observed. Alterations in histometry of intertubular testicular compartment were also noted. It is concluded that the HFHS experimental model altered only paternal metabolic parameters. However, reproductive parameters of the three generations were affected.
Pregnant individuals who overeat are more likely to predispose their fetus to the development of metabolic disorders in adulthood. Physical training is a prevention and treatment interventional strategy that could treat these disorders, since it improves metabolism and body composition. This study assessed the protective effect of physical exercise against possible metabolic changes in generations F1 and F2, whose mothers were subjected to a high-sugar/high-fat (HS/HF) diet. Wistar rats belonging to generation F0 were distributed into four groups (n = 10): sedentary control (CSed), exercised control (CExe), sedentary HS/HF diet (DHSed) and exercised HS/HF diet (DHExe). From 21 to 120 days of age, maintained during pregnancy and lactation period, CSed/CExe animals received standard feed and DHSed/DHExe animals a HS/HF diet. Animals from the CExe/DHExe underwent physical training from 21 to 120 days of age. Male and female F1 and F2 received a normocaloric feed and did not perform any physical training, categorized into four groups (n = 10) according to the maternal group to which they belonged to. An increase in body weight, adiposity and glucose, and a change in lipid profile in F0 were observed, while exercise reduced the biochemical parameters comparing DHSed with DHExe. Maternal exercise had an effect on future generations, reducing adiposity, glucose and triglyceride concentrations, and preventing deleterious effects on glucose tolerance. Maternal overeating increased health risks both for mother and offspring, demonstrating that an HS/HF diet intake promotes metabolic alterations in the offspring. Importantly, the physical training performed by F0 proved to be protective against such effects.
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