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China's rapid rise is doubtless the most significant economic and geopolitical event in the 21st century. What has led to its rise? What does it mean for the rest of the world? When will China overtake the US? Will the conflict between the two superpowers derail its further rise? Can China's development experience be emulated by other countries? These are some of the important questions addressed in this jargon-free, yet rigorous book. It debunks many popular explanations of China's rapid economic growth ranging from abundance of cheap labor, export promotion, demographic dividend, strong government, to mercantilist policies and IP theft. Taking a global comparative approach, this book demonstrates convincingly that the true differentiating factor making China grow faster than other developing countries over the past four decades is the Confucian culture of savings and education. This cultural perspective yields powerful new insights into many questions regarding China's rise.
Understand multiphase flows using multidisciplinary knowledge in physical principles, modelling theories, and engineering practices. This essential text methodically introduces the important concepts, governing mechanisms, and state-of-the-art theories, using numerous real-world applications, examples, and problems. Covers all major types of multiphase flows, including gas-solid, gas-liquid (sprays or bubbling), liquid-solid, and gas-solid-liquid flows. Introduces the volume-time-averaged transport theorems and associated Lagrangian-trajectory modelling and Eulerian-Eulerian multi-fluid modelling. Explains typical computational techniques, measurement methods and four representative subjects of multiphase flow systems. Suitable as a reference for engineering students, researchers, and practitioners, this text explores and applies fundamental theories to the analysis of system performance using a case-based approach.
With further climate change still expected, it is predicted to increase the frequency with plants will be water stressed, which subsequently influences phytophagous insects, particularly Lepidoptera with limited mobility of larvae. Previous studies have indicated that oviposition preference and offspring performance of Lepidoptera insects are sensitive to drought separately. However, the integration of their two properties is not always seen. Here, we evaluated changes in oviposition selection and offspring fitness of a Lepidoptera insect under three water-stressed treatments using a model agroecosystem consisting of maize Zea mays, and Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis. Results found that female O. furnacalis preferred to laying their eggs on well-watered maize, and then their offspring tended to survive better, attained bigger larvae mass, and developed more pupae and adults on the preferred maize. Oviposition selection of O. furnacalis positively correlated with height and leaf traits of maize, and offspring fitness positively related with water content and phytochemical traits of hosts. Overall, these results suggest that oviposition choice performed by O. furnacalis reflects the maximization of offspring fitness, supporting preference–performance hypothesis. This finding further highlights that the importance of simultaneous evaluation of performance and performance for water driving forces should be involved, in order to accurately predict population size of O. furnacalis under altered precipitation pattern.
The association between blood transfusion and ventilator-associated events (VAEs) has not been fully understood. We sought to determine whether blood transfusion increases the risk of a VAE.
Nested case-control study.
This study was based on a registry of healthcare-associated infections in intensive care units at West China Hospital system.
1,657 VAE cases and 3,293 matched controls were identified.
For each case, 2 controls were randomly selected using incidence density sampling. We defined blood transfusion as a time-dependent variable, and we used weighted Cox models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for all 3 tiers of VAEs.
Blood transfusion was associated with increased risk of ventilator-associated complication-plus (VAC-plus; HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.22–1.77; P <.001), VAC-only (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01–1.65; P = .038), infection-related VAC-plus (IVAC-plus; HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.33–2.39; P < .001), and possible ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP; HR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.10–3.99; P = .024). Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion was also associated with increased risk of VAC-plus (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.08–1.65; P = .007), IVAC-plus (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.22–2.36; P = .002), and PVAP (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.17–5.28; P = .018). Compared to patients without transfusion, the risk of VAE was significantly higher in patients with RBC transfusions of >3 units (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.25–2.40; P = .001) but not in those with RBC transfusions of 0–3 units.
Blood transfusions were associated with increased risk of all tiers of VAE. The risk was significantly higher among patients who were transfused with >3 units of RBCs.
As one of the world's fastest growing industries, heritage tourism is surrounded by political and ethical issues. This research explores the social and political effects and implications of heritage tourism through several pertinent topics. It examines the hegemonic power of heritage tourism and its consequences, the spectre of nationalism and colonialism in heritage-making, particularly for minorities and indigenous peoples, and the paradox of heritage tourism's role in combating these issues. Drawing from global cases, the study addresses a range of approaches and challenges of empowerment within the context of heritage tourism, including cultural landscapes, intangible heritage and eco-museums. The research argues that heritage tourism has the potential to develop as a form of co-production. It can be used to create a mechanism for community-centred governance that integrates recognition and interpretation and promotes dialogue, equity and diversity.
We propose a new neighbouring prediction model for mortality forecasting. For each mortality rate at age x in year t, mx,t, we construct an image of neighbourhood mortality data around mx,t, that is, Ꜫmx,t (x1, x2, s), which includes mortality information for ages in [x-x1, x+x2], lagging k years (1 ≤ k ≤ s). Combined with the deep learning model – convolutional neural network, this framework is able to capture the intricate nonlinear structure in the mortality data: the neighbourhood effect, which can go beyond the directions of period, age, and cohort as in classic mortality models. By performing an extensive empirical analysis on all the 41 countries and regions in the Human Mortality Database, we find that the proposed models achieve superior forecasting performance. This framework can be further enhanced to capture the patterns and interactions between multiple populations.