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The role of the insular cortex in epilepsy has been largely neglected until very recently. With growing interest in insular epilepsies, this book provides unique, in-depth coverage of the condition from childhood to adulthood. Detailed description of the anatomy, vascularization, connectivity, and functions of the insula along with complete description of the semiology, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging of insular epilepsy helps clinicians better recognize the condition. Up-to-date treatment avenues are explored, guiding the management of patients, including drug-resistant cases suitable for neurosurgery. Authors come from a range of backgrounds, providing a multidisciplinary perspective essential to all health professionals involved in epilepsy diagnosis and treatment. A scratch-off code in the inside cover allow users access to an online equivalent of the book, featuring videos illustrating the semiology of the various forms of insular seizures. This authoritative overview provides clinicians with the necessary information to treat this under-recognized condition.
The ocean is a central site of escape, danger, and rescue for refugees. It is also a place where oceanic humanitarianism is enacted. In histories of refugee migration, the combination of the ocean, weather, and climate in determining the fate of refugees has not been adequately examined. This article provides a critical analysis of a Vietnamese refugee boat journey in 1982, to demonstrate the paradoxical nature of the ocean as both a site of danger and saviour. Conventional historical methodologies alone cannot capture the complex role of the ocean and the weather in determining boat refugee journeys and rescues. Interdisciplinary research between historians and ocean engineers provides new evidence and understanding of how the ocean and weather influences the outcomes of refugees seeking asylum by boat. Numerical model predictions of sea state and ship motion – which enables the vessel's journey in past environmental conditions to be understood – integrated within historical analysis contributes to a fuller and more complex understanding of the nexus between environmental conditions and forced migration journeys. Ocean engineering produces a scientific narrative that historians can use, alongside oral histories and other sources, to theorize the ocean as an active agent.
Incomplete documentation of β-lactam reactions often leads to inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a structured interview on the quality of β-lactam reaction documentation. After 203 interviews, documentation of the core components of a β-lactam reaction improved (48% vs 1%; P < .001).
To analyze scientific literature on the development and implementation of the Chronic Care Model (CCM) in treating chronic diseases in the Italy context. Besides, to evaluate the effects of the activities carried out by the operators participating in the CCM on clinical care.
Italy is the second country globally for longevity, with 21.4% of citizens over 65 and 6.4% over 80. The CCM fits into this context, a care model aimed primarily at patients suffering from chronic diseases, especially in emergencies, as the recent COVID-19 pandemic.
PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cinahl, and Cochrane Library scientific databases were consulted, and the records selected as relevant by title and abstract by nine independent scholars, and disagreements were resolved through discussion. Finally, the studies included in this review were selected based on the eligibility criteria.
Twenty potentially relevant studies were selected, and after applying the eligibility criteria and screening by the Critical Appraisal Skills Program tool, eight included in this review. The studies showed the effectiveness of CCM for managing patients with heart failure in primary care settings and significant improvements in clinical outcomes, the reduction of inappropriate emergency room access for chronic patients, and the improvement of patients’ overall health with diabetes. The CCM organizational model is effective in improving the management of metabolic control and the main cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, this modality also allows doctors to dedicate more space to patients in the disease’s acute phase.
The CCM, with its fundamental pillars of empowering self-management of care, could represent a valid alternative to health management. The managers of health services, especially territorial ones, could consider the CCM for the improvement of the treatments offered.
This study looked at the differences in the length of hospital stays in number of days, 12 months before and after starting on Lurasidone, in patients with psychosis.
A retrospective review of medical records between 2016 and 2019 of patients with psychosis due to all causes at a First Episode Psychosis service in the United Kingdom was performed. Most common side effects, duration of Lurasidone treatment and reasons for stopping Lurasidone were recorded. The length of hospital stays (in number of days) before and after being started on Lurasidone of those had taken Lurasidone for at least 12 months were compared using a paired t-test.
43 (n = 43) patients had taken Lurasidone at some point during the study period with a mean age of 30.48 years and a male: female ratio of 1.4:1. The average duration of treatment was 327 days. The most common reported side effects were sedation (16%), nausea (7%) and tardive dyskinesia (7%). Among these 43 patients, 19 patients (44%) tolerated and were on Lurasidone for at least 12 months with a mean age of 30.42 and a male: female ratio of 0.42:1. Of these 19 patients, the total number of days of hospital stays within 12 months before and after Lurasidone initiation was 1179 days (mean = 62.05) and 242 days (mean = 16.47) respectively. The paired t-test showed a significant reduction in the average length of hospital stays in these patients within 12 months after Lurasidone initiation (p = 0.0466).
Patients with psychosis who were on Lurasidone had a statically significantly reduction in the length of hospital stays within 12 months of medication initiation; up to 44% tolerance rate, with better tolerance in female patients and the most common side effects being sedation, nausea, tardive dyskinesia.
This chapter examines 1.5 generation Asian American literature, considering its thematic, formal, and critical value within Asian American studies more broadly. The 1.5 generation typically refers to subjects who are able to mediate between generations, languages, and cultures because their migration to another country at a young age results in transnational and intercultural knowledges and skills. This model for comprehending the 1.5er can be complemented with analyses of literature that is written by and/or conceptualizes the notion of the 1.5 generation. From this perspective, 1.5 generation Asian American literature is not necessarily defined by a fixed set of themes and forms but, rather, draws attention to shifting US–Asian relations and their impact on Asian American lives. Focusing on Vietnamese American anthologies published in the 1990s, this chapter demonstrates how the increased visibility of Vietnamese American literature largely centers around the notion of the 1.5 generation as a critical posture. Foregrounding neglected Southeast Asian contexts, these anthologies posit 1.5 generation literature’s critical importance in rethinking Asian American studies paradigms.
Indexed literature (from 2015 to 2020) on artificial intelligence (AI) technologies and machine learning algorithms (ML) pertaining to disasters and public health emergencies were reviewed. Search strategies were developed and conducted for PubMed and Compendex. Articles that met inclusion criteria were filtered iteratively by title followed by abstract review and full text review. Articles were organized to identify novel approaches and breadth of potential AI applications. A total of 1217 articles were initially retrieved by the search. Upon relevant title review, 1003 articles remained. Following abstract screening, 667 articles remained. Full text review for relevance yielded 202 articles. Articles that met inclusion criteria totaled 56 articles. Those identifying specific roles of AI and ML (17 articles) were grouped by topics highlighting utility of AI and ML in disaster and public health emergency contexts. Development and use of AI and ML have increased dramatically over the past few years. This review discusses and highlights potential contextual applications and limitations of AI and ML in disaster and public health emergency scenarios.
This study investigates the influence of business-specific, bank-specific, and political-specific networks on small firm investments in Vietnam. Also, I aim to explain how these social networks substitute the weaknesses of local institutions. Examining a set of more than 9,800 firm-year observations of small businesses in Vietnam from 2005–2015, I find that social ties with bank officials can boost firm investments; social ties with government officials can help firms overcome institutional voids; whereas social ties with businesspeople appear trivial to investment decisions. More importantly, I propose that networking, especially networks built upon connections with government officials, can substitute local institutions by addressing weaknesses in (1) inefficient legal enforcement, (2) corruption, (3) bureaucratic compliance, and (4) non-transparent governance system.
We find all integer solutions to the equation $x^2+5^a\cdot 13^b\cdot 17^c=y^n$ with $a,\,b,\,c\geq 0$, $n\geq 3$, $x,\,y>0$ and $\gcd (x,\,y)=1$. Our proof uses a deep result about primitive divisors of Lucas sequences in combination with elementary number theory and computer search.
In hot environments, collagen, which is normally targeted when radiocarbon (14C) dating bone, rapidly degrades. With little other skeletal material suitable for 14C dating, it can be impossible to obtain dates directly on skeletal materials. A small amount of carbonate occurs in hydroxyapatite, the mineral phase of bone and tooth enamel, and has been used as an alternative to collagen. Unfortunately, the mineral phase is often heavily contaminated with exogenous carbonate causing 14C dates to underestimate the true age of a sample. Although tooth enamel, with its larger, more stable crystals and lower porosity, is likely to be more robust to diagenesis than bone, little work has been undertaken to investigate how exogenous carbonate can be effectively removed prior to 14C dating. Typically, acid is used to dissolve calcite and etch the surface of the enamel, but it is unclear which acid is most effective. This study repeats and extends earlier work using a wider range of samples and acids and chelating agents (hydrochloric, lactic, acetic and propionic acids, and EDTA). We find that weaker acids remove carbonate contaminants more effectively than stronger acids, and acetic acid is the most effective. However, accurate dates cannot always be obtained.
We prove that the restriction of a given orthogonal-complete metric space to the closure of the orbit induced by the origin point with respect to an orthogonal-preserving and orthogonal-continuous map is a complete metric space. Then we show that many existence results on fixed points in orthogonal-complete metric spaces can be proved by using the corresponding existence results in complete metric spaces.
Livestock production has increased in many emerging economies, but productivity is often substantially impaired by infectious diseases. The first step towards improved livestock health and productivity is to map the presence of livestock diseases. The objective of this review was to summarize studies conducted on such diseases in an emerging economy, Vietnam, and thereby identifying knowledge gaps that may inform the design of surveillance and control programs. Few studies were found to evaluate the distribution of infectious livestock diseases other than avian influenza. Also, many regions with dense livestock populations had received little attention in terms of disease investigation. A large proportion of the studies dealt with zoonoses and food-borne infections which might be due to funding agencies priorities. On the contrary, studies targeting infections that affect livestock and their productivity were few. We think that this limitation in scientific reports on infectious diseases that only affect livestock productivity is a common phenomenon in low and lower middle income countries. More science-based data on such diseases would help policymakers to prioritize which livestock diseases should be subject to animal health programs aimed to support rural livelihoods and economic development.
The feeling of clarity can be dangerously seductive. It is the feeling associated with understanding things. And we use that feeling, in the rough-and-tumble of daily life, as a signal that we have investigated a matter sufficiently. The sense of clarity functions as a thought-terminating heuristic. In that case, our use of clarity creates significant cognitive vulnerability, which hostile forces can try to exploit. If an epistemic manipulator can imbue a belief system with an exaggerated sense of clarity, then they can induce us to terminate our inquiries too early – before we spot the flaws in the system. How might the sense of clarity be faked? Let’s first consider the object of imitation: genuine understanding. Genuine understanding grants cognitive facility. When we understand something, we categorize its aspects more easily; we see more connections between its disparate elements; we can generate new explanations; and we can communicate our understanding. In order to encourage us to accept a system of thought, then, an epistemic manipulator will want the system to provide its users with an exaggerated sensation of cognitive facility. The system should provide its users with the feeling that they can easily and powerfully create categorizations, generate explanations, and communicate their understanding. And manipulators have a significant advantage in imbuing their systems with a pleasurable sense of clarity, since they are freed from the burdens of accuracy and reliability. I offer two case studies of seductively clear systems: conspiracy theories; and the standardized, quantified value systems of bureaucracies.