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An original comprehensive guide on computational nanomechanics discussing basic concepts and implications in areas such as computational physics, materials, mechanics and engineering as well as several other interdisciplinary avenues. This book makes the underlying theory accessible to readers without specialised training or extensive background in quantum physics, statistical mechanics, or theoretical chemistry. It combines a careful treatment of theoretical concepts with a detailed tutorial on computer software and computing implementation, including multiscale simulation and computational statistical theory. Multidisciplinary perspectives are provided, yielding a true insight on the applications of computational nanomechanics across diverse engineering fields. The book can serve as a practical guide with step-by-step discussion of coding, example problems and case studies. This book will be essential reading for students new to the subject, as well as an excellent reference for graduates and researchers.
Human dignity is a contested concept. While “dignity as autonomy” reflects universalist liberal egalitarianism, “dignity as status”refers to an aspect of social relationship within a hierarchically ordered society. While all citizens have inherent dignity, individuals occupying certain offices or attaining certain accomplishments may enjoy special dignity, in the form of privileges and immunities. This is evident in Singapore, where the government promotes relational constitutionalism, which seeks to secure rights while sustaining durable relationships and solidarity within an ethnically and religiously diverse polity. While dignity is not an explicit constitutional value, this chapter explores how it is apprehended as a public value. The government has endorsed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which affirms human dignity as foundational. It considers how human dignity has been invoked before and beyond the courts, examining how the concept and cognates like honor, integrity, benevolence and virtue shape each other. Particular attention is paid to how human dignity is shaped as manifest in laws regulating political defamation and the treatment of migrant workers.
Based on a broad literature review of journal and book publications, governmental archives, and annals, this study comprehensively examines the special contribution of Yunnan, China, to understanding East Asian catarrhines (colobines, macaques), as well as hominoids, gibbons, hominins, and modern ethnic groups since the Later Miocene or Early Pliocene. It spatially demonstrates their relationship, particularly that between primates and archaic and modern humans. The results indicate that a specific region in Yunnan, joining with the southeast Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, the end of the eastern margin of the Himalayas, and the Hengduan Mountains (SQPMH), is globally distinctive in promoting catarrhine dispersion, radiation, speciation, and evolution in East and Southeast Asia. This area forms the gateway between West, East and Southeast. Six major archaeological sites in Yunnan (Yuanmou, Jiangchuan, Tangzigou, Xianrendong, Xiaodong, and Maludong) share the same environments and habitats with primates, indicating a strong tendency for coexistence. Yunnan also offered an exclusive refugium for plants, animals, and humans during the glaciation so that it maintains the largest numbers of ethnic groups (26) and primate species (21 of 25 species) in China. Although primates inspired significant contributions to arts, culture, social life, and medical research for humans, as in other parts of China, they have suffered greatly in recent Chinese history, particularly since the second half of the last century, resulting in the extirpation of two gibbon species in the province.
East Asia, Yunnan, Qinghai Tibet Plateau, Mts. Hengduan, Refugium, Homo, Primates, Dispersion, Catarrhine Evolution
This chapter aims to provide a careful examination of Mandarin Chinese classifiers from a syntactic perspective. A comprehensive overview of the distribution of classifiers is provided along with their syntactic analyses. A central conclusion of this chapter, following much recent work, is that there are two distinct structural configurations that numeral classifiers participate in, and that these structures can distinguish the type of classifier participating in the structure as well as its semantic interpretation. The syntactic analyses are complemented with formal semantic analyses of numeral classifiers.
After critically reviewing the conflicting theories of word-formation, the integral model in Li 2005 is presented which is shown not only to make a minimal number of postulations but also to cover a wide range of cross-linguistic facts: morphological causativization in Bantu and Semitic, compounding in Chinese and English, the resultative constructions in Chinese, and noun-incorporation in Amerindian. Underlying this chapter is the long-lasting debate in this part of linguistic theorization as well as the methodological implications of the integral solution.
Case theory is a theoretical tool in the generative grammar to capture generalizations regarding categorial distribution, particularly the nominal category in relation to others. The notion of case can describe the close relation between grammatical categories, such as a verb/preposition and its object, or the subject of a sentence and the tense or agreement of the sentence. This chapter reviews the advantages of adopting the notion of abstract case in Chinese, a language without overt morphological case marking. Data and issues discussed include how the challenges Chinese poses to the word order correlations proposed as universals or tendencies in typological studies cease to be problems if the notion of abstract case interacts with word order universals, what the postverbal structure constraint is in Chinese, and how Case plays a role in the analysis, whether there are true pre-nominal PPs in Chinese, and whether tensed and non-tensed clauses can be distinguished in Chinese, as well as the role of case in capturing the behavior of clauses.
Emissions from unconventional oil and gas development can impact ground-level air quality. The largest impacts are on ozone (O3) and are driven by emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the western U.S., ozone events in excess of EPA standards have been linked to VOC emissions from oil and gas operations. In Texas and the eastern U.S., ozone impacts are more modest, but may contribute to exceedances of EPA standards in some downwind cities. Some of the emitted VOCs are hazardous air pollutants that may cause cancer or other health effects. Thus, these emissions may also generate environmental injustice for communities living near oil and gas sources. Unconventional oil and gas sources also contribute to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). However, they are minor sources of these pollutants. Similarly, combustion associated with the oil and gas industry emits NOx, but the industry is a small contributor to overall emissions. In rural areas of the western U.S., these NOx emissions contribute to the high ozone events.
This paper examines the economic implications of the tariff increases by the United States and by China during the Trump era trade dispute and the gains from their potential removal. The increases were dramatic, with the US raising tariffs on industrial products by a factor of six – with particularly large tariff increases on intermediate and capital goods – and China increasing its tariffs on US agricultural products more than five-fold. These changes distort trade and production decisions in both countries and undercut the global trading system. They resulted in substantial economic losses to each country, with import volumes reduced by 4.9% in China and 4.5% in the USA, and bilateral trade patterns were massively distorted. Their cost to the United States rose at the end of 2021, when the import expansion provisions of the Trump era Phase One Agreement expired. Negotiating the abolition of these costly and disruptive tariffs would generate substantial real income gains for both countries and help lower US consumer prices.
Elucidating individual aberrance is a critical first step toward precision medicine for heterogeneous disorders such as depression. The neuropathology of depression is related to abnormal inter-regional structural covariance indicating a brain maturational disruption. However, most studies focus on group-level structural covariance aberrance and ignore the interindividual heterogeneity. For that reason, we aimed to identify individualized structural covariance aberrance with the help of individualized differential structural covariance network (IDSCN) analysis.
T1-weighted anatomical images of 195 first-episode untreated patients with depression and matched healthy controls (n = 78) were acquired. We obtained IDSCN for each patient and identified subtypes of depression based on shared differential edges.
As a result, patients with depression demonstrated tremendous heterogeneity in the distribution of differential structural covariance edges. Despite this heterogeneity, altered edges within subcortical-cerebellum network were often shared by most of the patients. Two robust neuroanatomical subtypes were identified. Specifically, patients in subtype 1 often shared decreased motor network-related edges. Patients in subtype 2 often shared decreased subcortical-cerebellum network-related edges. Functional annotation further revealed that differential edges in subtype 2 were mainly implicated in reward/motivation-related functional terms.
In conclusion, we investigated individualized differential structural covariance and identified that decreased edges within subcortical-cerebellum network are often shared by patients with depression. The identified two subtypes provide new insights into taxonomy and facilitate potential clues to precision diagnosis and treatment of depression.
Previous research indicates that parental emotion socialization (ES) practices play important roles in adolescents’ social and emotional development. However, longitudinal studies testing bidirectional effects are relatively scarce. Additionally, most studies have focused on people from Western societies. In the current 3-year, multi-informant, longitudinal study of Chinese adolescents and their parents, we investigated prospective bidirectional effects between parental positive ES practices and adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment (i.e., self-esteem and depressive symptoms). Adolescents (N = 710 at T1, 50% boys, Mage = 12.41, SD = 0.59) reported on parental positive ES practices and their own depressive symptoms and self-esteem when they were in 7th, 8th, and 9th grade. Mothers and fathers reported on their own use of positive ES practices at all three time points. We utilized a random intercept cross-lagged panel model to examine between- and within-family effects. Overall results showed robust effects of adolescent depressive symptoms on parental positive ES practices and bidirectional effects between parental ES and adolescent self-esteem. Effects differed by informants whether using adolescent-perceived data, or mother- or father-reported data. However, these child effects and bidirectional effects did not differ by adolescent sex. Our findings add to the understanding of parental ES and adolescent psychosocial adjustment.
Phase segregation triggered by selective evaporation can emerge in multicomponent systems, leading to complex physiochemical hydrodynamics. Recently, Li et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 120, 2018, 224501) and Kim & Stone (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 850, 2018, pp. 769–783) reported a segregative behaviour (i.e. demixing) in an evaporating binary droplet. In this work, by means of experiments and theoretical analysis, we investigate the flow dynamics after the occurrence of the phase segregation. As example, we take the 1,2-hexanediol–water binary droplet system. First, we reveal experimentally the overall physiochemical hydrodynamics of the evaporation process, including the segregative behaviour and the resulting flow structure close to the substrate. By quantifying the evolution of the radial flow, we identify three successive life stages of the evaporation process. At Stage I, a radially outward flow is observed, driven by the Marangoni effect. At the transition to Stage II, the radial flow reverses partially, starting from the contact line. This flow breaks the axial symmetry and remarkably is driven by the segregation itself. Finally at Stage III, the flow decays as the evaporation ceases gradually. At this stage, the segregation has grown to the entire droplet, and the flow is again controlled by the Marangoni effect. The resulting Marangoni flow homogenizes the distribution of the entrapped volatile water over the whole droplet.
Two prevailing trends in livestock production include increasing farm sizes and higher recycling rates of manure. Using beef cattle farms in China as a case study, we examine the impact of farm size on farmers' choice of manure disposal modes. Three forms of manure disposal modes are identified: (1) selling to neighboring farmers, (2) giving away to neighboring farmers and (3) self-use. Based on primary data from a field survey of beef cattle farmers in China, we estimate the choice of the above-mentioned three disposal modes using the constrained singular Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) model. We find a significant and nonlinear impact of farm size on farmers' choice of manure disposal modes. Specifically, there is a significant and inversed U-shaped relationship between farm size and manure giving away, and a significant U-shaped relationship between farm size and manure selling or self-use. We additionally find several other factors that affect farmers' choice of manure disposal: the educational level of a farmer has a positive impact on manure selling; the better a farmer's physical health condition, the more likely the farmer self uses manure and less likely gives it away; land acquisition, as well as engagement in crop farming, increases manure self-use and reduces manure giving away and selling; the availability of manure treatment facilities reduces manure self-use; and the willingness of nearby crop growers to accept manure significantly decreases manure self-use and increases manure selling and giving away. Policy implications are also discussed.
The southern Great Xing’an Range (SGXR), located in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), is one of the most economically important Cu–Mo–Fe–Sn–Pb–Zn–Ag metallogenic provinces in China. The newly discovered Panjiaduan Cu–Pb–Zn deposit (9.3 Mt; at 1.36% Cu, 2.90% Pb, 3.80% Zn and 38.12 g/t Ag), located in the SE segment of the SGXR, is primarily hosted in fracture zones in volcanic rocks and granodiorite of the Manitu Formation. Four paragenetic stages of metallic mineralization are identified: (I) quartz-pyrite-arsenopyrite; (II) quartz-polymetallic sulphide; (III) quartz-galena-sphalerite-argentite; and (IV) quartz-calcite-minor sulphide. The hydrothermal quartz contains three types of primary fluid inclusion (FIs): vapour-rich two-phase liquid-vapour (LV-type), liquid-rich two-phase liquid-vapour (VL-type) and three-phase liquid-vapour-solid FIs (SL-type). Stages I and II contain all types with homogenization temperatures (Th) of 324–386 °C and 276–334 °C as well as salinities of 0.7–38.0 wt% and 0.9–34.7 wt%, respectively, whereas stage III is composed of VL- and LV-type FIs with Th of 210–269 °C and salinities of 0.5–7.2 wt%. Only VL-type FIs occur in stage IV, with Th of 139–185 °C and salinities of 1.6–4.2 wt%. The δ18OH2O and δD values vary from −15.7 to 2.6‰ and −132.7 to −110.2‰, respectively, indicating predominant meteoric water with an initial magmatic source. The He–Ar isotopic compositions of the pyrite inclusions from the Panjiaduan Cu–Pb–Zn veins suggest that fluids were derived from the crust.
The codling moth Cydia pomonella is a major pest of global significance impacting pome fruits and walnuts. It threatens the apple industry in the Loess Plateau and Bohai Bay in China. Sterile insect technique (SIT) could overcome the limitations set by environmentally compatible area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches such as mating disruption and attract-kill that are difficult to suppress in a high-density pest population, as well as the development of insecticide resistance. In this study, we investigated the effects of X-ray irradiation (183, 366, 549 Gy) on the fecundity and fertility of a laboratory strain of C. pomonella, using a newly developed irradiator, to evaluate the possibility of X-rays as a replacement for Cobalt60 (60Co-γ) and the expanded future role of this approach in codling moth control. Results show that the 8th-day is the optimal age for irradiation of male pupae. The fecundity decreased significantly as the dosage of radiation increased. The mating ratio and mating number were not influenced. However, treated females were sub-sterile at a radiation dose of 183 Gy (20.93%), and were almost 100% sterile at a radiation dose of 366 Gy or higher. Although exposure to a radiation dose of 366 Gy resulted in a significant reduction in the mating competitiveness of male moths, our radiation biology results suggest that this new generation of X-ray irradiator has potential applications in SIT programs for future codling moth control.
Microorganisms can efficiently navigate in anisotropic complex fluids, but the precise swimming mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Their dynamics is determined by the interplay between multiple effects, including the fluid's orientation order, swimmer's undulatory gait and the finite length. Here, we extend the numerical study of the two-dimensional undulatory motions of a flexible swimmer in lyotropic liquid-crystalline polymers (LCPs) by Lin et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 921, 2021, p. A25) to the scenario of arbitrary swimming directions with respect to the nematic director. The swimmer is modelled as a nearly inextensible yet flexible fibre with imposed travelling-wave-like actuation. We investigate the orientation-dependent swimming behaviours in nematic LCPs for an infinitely long sheet (i.e. Taylor's swimming sheet model) and finite-length swimmers. We demonstrate that the swimmer must be sufficiently stiff to produce undulatory deformations to gain net motions. Moreover, a motile finite-length swimmer can reorient itself to swim parallel with the nematic director, due to a net body torque arising from the asymmetric distribution of the polymer force along the body.
Although compelling evidence from observational studies supports a positive association between consumption of cereal fiber and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction, randomized clinical trials (RCT)s often target viscous fiber type as the prospective contributor to lipid lowering to reduce CVD risk. The objective of our study is to compare the lipids lowering effects of viscous dietary fiber to non-viscous, cereal-type fiber in clinical studies. RCTs that evaluated the effect of viscous dietary fiber compared to non-viscous, cereal fiber on LDL cholesterol and alternative lipid markers, with duration of ≥ 3 weeks, in adults with or without hypercholesterolemia were included. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register were searched through October 19, 2021. Data was extracted and assessed by 2 independent reviewers. The generic inverse variance method with random effects model was utilized to pool the data which were expressed as mean differences (MD)s with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Eighty-nine trials met eligibility criteria (n = 4755). Mean differences for the effect of viscous dietary fiber compared to non-viscous cereal fiber were: LDL cholesterol (MD = –0.26 mmol/L; 95% CI: –0.30, -0.22 mmol/L; P < 0.01), non-HDL cholesterol (MD = –0.33 mmol/L; 95% CI: –0.39, -0.28 mmol/L; P < 0.01), and Apo-B (MD = –0.04 g/L; 95% CI: –0.06, -0.03 g/L; P < 0.01). Viscous dietary fiber reduces LDL cholesterol and alternative lipid markers relative to the fiber from cereal sources, hence may be a preferred type of fiber-based dietary intervention targeting cardiovascular disease risk reduction.
The sequential occurrence of three layers of smooth muscle layers (SML) in human embryos and fetus is not known. Here, we investigated the process of gut SML development in human embryos and fetuses and compared the morphology of SML in fetuses and neonates. The H&E, Masson trichrome staining, and Immunohistochemistry were conducted on 6–12 gestation week human embryos and fetuses and on normal neonatal intestine. We showed that no lumen was seen in 6–7th gestation week embryonic gut, neither gut wall nor SML was developed in this period. In 8–9th gestation week embryonic and fetal gut, primitive inner circular SML (IC-SML) was identified in a narrow and discontinuous gut lumen with some vacuoles. In 10th gestation week fetal gut, the outer longitudinal SML (OL-SML) in gut wall was clearly identifiable, both the inner and outer SML expressed α-SMA. In 11–12th gestation week fetal gut, in addition to the IC-SML and OL-SML, the muscularis mucosae started to develop as revealed by α-SMA immune-reactivity beneath the developing mucosal epithelial layer. Comparing with the gut of fetuses of 11–12th week of gestation, the muscularis mucosae, IC-SML, and OL-SML of neonatal intestine displayed different morphology, including branching into glands of lamina propria in mucosa and increased thickness. In conclusions, in the human developing gut between week-8 to week-12 of gestation, the IC-SML develops and forms at week-8, followed by the formation of OL-SML at week-10, and the muscularis mucosae develops and forms last at week-12.