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Comprising fifteen books and over two hundred and fifty myths, Ovid's Metamorphoses is one of the longest extant Latin poems from the ancient world and one of the most influential works in Western culture. It is an epic on desire and transgression that became a gateway to the entire world of pagan mythology and visual imagination. This, the first complete commentary in English, covers all aspects of the text – from textual interpretation to poetics, imagination, and ideology – and will be useful as a teaching aid and an orientation for those who are interested in the text and its reception. Historically, the poem's audience includes readers interested in opera and ballet, psychology and sexuality, myth and painting, feminism and posthumanism, vegetarianism and metempsychosis (to name just a few outside the area of Classical Studies).
Life's Little Ironies (a phrase coined by Hardy) was Thomas Hardy's third collection of short stories. The volume's eight stories and one sequence of shorter tales (presented in a Canterbury Tales-type framework) had all appeared first in magazines before being gathered together in 1894. Not only do they reflect the strengths and themes of his great novels – they are also themselves powerful works, encompassing tragedy and humour. Part of the Cambridge Edition of the Novels and Short Stories of Thomas Hardy, this volume presents an authoritative text which aims to reflect Hardy's original artistic intentions. A full scholarly apparatus includes every authorial revision, from manuscript (where extant) onwards, enabling readers to trace Hardy's creative process. An introductory essay gives details of the stories' composition, publishing history and critical reception; there are comprehensive explanatory notes and a glossary, and the illustrations that accompanied the stories' magazine publication also provide valuable context.
While the extent of employer non-compliance with minimum employment standards has yet to be decisively determined in Australia, there is evidence to suggest that it is both prevalent and persistent. This article draws on the scholarship emerging from the regulatory studies field to explore the underlying impulses and issues that may have led to this compliance gap. It considers how a more pluralistic and decentred understanding of regulation may improve compliance. This understanding is then applied to examine the various ways in which the federal labour inspectorate — the Fair Work Ombudsman — has sought to supplement and strengthen its existing compliance and enforcement mechanisms by harnessing or ‘enrolling’ non-state stakeholders, such as employer associations, trade unions, top-level firms and key individuals.
Systematic reviews (SRs) are central to evaluating therapies but have high costs in time and money. Many software tools exist to assist with SRs, but most tools do not support the full process, and transparency and replicability of SR depends on performing and presenting evidence according to established best practices. In order to provide a basis for comparing between software tools that support SR, we performed a feature-by-feature comparison of SR tools.
We searched for SR tools by reviewing any such tool listed the Systematic Review Toolbox, previous reviews of SR tools, and qualitative Google searching. We included all SR tools that were currently functional, and required no coding and excluded reference managers, desktop applications, and statistical software. The list of features to assess was populated by combining all features assessed in four previous reviews of SR tools; we also added five features (manual addition, screening automation, dual extraction, living review, and public outputs) that were independently noted as best practices or enhancements of transparency/replicability. Then, two reviewers assigned binary ‘present/absent’ assessments to all SR tools with respect to all features, and a third reviewer adjudicated all disagreements.
Of 53 SR tools found, 29 were excluded, leaving 24 for assessment. Thirty features were assessed across six classes, and the inter-observer agreement was 86 percent. DistillerSR (Evidence Partners; n = 26/30, 87%), Nested Knowledge (Nested Knowledge; n = 25/30, 83%), and EPPI-Reviewer Web (EPPI-Centre; n = 24/30, 80%) support the most features followed by Giotto Compliance (Giotto Compliance; n = 23/30, 77%), LitStream (ICF; n = 22/30, 73%), and SRDB.PRO (VTS Software; n = 21/30, 70%). Seven tools support fewer than half of all features assessed: RobotAnalyst, SyRF, Data Abstraction Assistant, SWIFT-Review, SR-Accelerator, RobotReviewer, and COVID-NMA. Notably, only 10 tools (42%) support direct search, 7 (29%) offer dual extraction, and 13 (54%) offer living/updatable reviews.
DistillerSR, EPPI-Reviewer Web, and Nested Knowledge each offer a high density of SR-focused web-based tools. By transparent comparison and discussion regarding SR tool functionality, the medical community can choose among existing software offerings and note the areas of growth needed, most notably in the support of living reviews.
Reasoning biases, specifically jumping to conclusions and belief inflexibility, may play a causal role in persistent paranoia. SlowMo, a new digitally supported blended cognitive-behavioural therapy, targets these biases. Adopting the terms ‘fast’ and ‘slow thinking’ as a heuristic to support therapy, SlowMo encourages people to notice a tendency to fast thinking, and to slow down for a moment to reduce paranoia. SlowMo therapy is the first digital blended therapy for paranoia, employing face to face therapy sessions with interactive digital content, and using mobile technology to promote generalisation to daily life. We report a randomised controlled trial with N=362 participants with distressing and persistent (3+months) paranoia, comparing 8 sessions of SlowMo plus Treatment as Usual (TAU) with TAU alone. We examined SlowMo’s effectiveness in reducing paranoia and improving reasoning biases; its mechanisms of action; usability; and acceptability (Garety et al., 2021). Outcomes: SlowMo was beneficial for paranoia: 10 /11 paranoia measures at 12 weeks and 8/11 at 24 weeks demonstrated significant effects, and sustained moderate effects were observed on all observer-rated measures of persecutory delusions. Improvements in self-esteem, worry, wellbeing and quality of life were also reported. Mediation: Consistent with the theory-driven design and treatment rationale, improvements in slower thinking were found to mediate change in paranoia at 12-
and 24-week follow-ups. However contrary to hypothesis, reduced fast thinking did not mediate change in paranoia, whereas worry did. These findings highlight the potential therapeutic mechanisms of action of SlowMo which which are discussed further. Garety P, Ward T, Emsley R, et al. Effects of SlowMo, a Blended Digital Therapy Targeting Reasoning, on Paranoia Among People With Psychosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2021;78(7):714–725. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.0326
We address a curious omission from both the literature on the law of charity and socio-legal studies – the effect of apparently extraneous factors, such as politics and ideology, as well as the searching for money on the charitable purposes and identities of the public who are to benefit from the charity. This is a curious omission because even the law accepts that the idea of public benefit in charity law is a sociological concept, albeit one that has developed a technical meaning. We argue that approaching charitable purposes and public benefit as sociological concepts enables us to appreciate the tensions that those external factors produce as they re-shape those purposes and refashion the public who are to benefit. We refer to these factors under the rubric of the shaping effects of money. We use a case-study of the Canal and River Trust (CRT) to develop this argument. The trust was set up by the government as a charity to manage and control 2,000 miles of inland waterways in England and Wales. We draw on interviews with households who live on boats and ‘continuously cruise’ those boats on the canals to illustrate how their interests have been marginalised as the CRT has re-shaped itself as a well-being charity.
The treatment of neonates with unrepairable heart valve dysfunction remains an unsolved problem because there are no growing heart valve replacements. Heart valve transplantation is a potential approach to deliver growing heart valve replacements. Therefore, we retrospectively analysed the semilunar valve function of orthotopic heart transplants during rejection episodes.
We included children who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation at our institution and experienced at least one episode of rejection between 1/1/2010 and 1/1/2020. Semilunar valve function was analysed using echocardiography at baseline, during rejection and approximately 3 months after rejection.
Included were a total of 31 episodes of rejection. All patients had either no (27) or trivial (4) aortic insufficiency prior to rejection. One patient developed mild aortic insufficiency during a rejection episode (P = 0.73), and all patients had either no (21) or trivial (7) aortic insufficiency at follow-up (P = 0.40). All patients had mild or less pulmonary insufficiency prior to rejection, which did not significantly change during (P = 0.40) or following rejection (P = 0.35). Similarly, compared to maximum pressure gradients across the valves at baseline, which were trivial, there was no appreciable change in the gradient across the aortic valve during (P = 0.50) or following rejection (P = 0.42), nor was there any meaningful change in the gradient across the pulmonary valve during (P = 0.55) or following rejection (P = 0.91).
This study demonstrated that there was no echocardiographic evidence of change in semilunar valve function during episodes of rejection in patient with heart transplants. These findings indicate that heart valve transplants require lower levels of immune suppression than orthotopic heart transplants and provide partial foundational evidence to justify future research that will determine whether heart valve transplantation may deliver growing heart valve replacements for children.
In March 2018, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, California Department of Public Health, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health and Pennsylvania Department of Health initiated an investigation of an outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) infections. Sixty infections were identified in California, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maine, Nevada and Ohio. The infections were linked to a no-rinse cleansing foam product (NRCFP), produced by Manufacturer A, used for skin care of patients in healthcare settings. FDA inspected Manufacturer A's production facility (manufacturing site of over-the-counter drugs and cosmetics), reviewed production records and collected product and environmental samples for analysis. FDA's inspection found poor manufacturing practices. Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed a match between NRCFP samples and clinical isolates. Manufacturer A conducted extensive recalls, FDA issued a warning letter citing the manufacturer's inadequate manufacturing practices, and federal, state and local partners issued public communications to advise patients, pharmacies, other healthcare providers and healthcare facilities to stop using the recalled NRCFP. This investigation highlighted the importance of following appropriate manufacturing practices to minimize microbial contamination of cosmetic products, especially if intended for use in healthcare settings.
Research is an important aspect of many medical students’ training. However, many medical students are not required to complete a scholarly project, and formal research training is often fragmented across the medical school curriculum. Thus, we developed an online, structured, asynchronous set of modules to introduce trainees to multiple topics relevant to the conduct of research.
Research 101 was piloted by 27 first-year medical students at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. Students’ knowledge, confidence, and satisfaction were assessed using a final quiz and pre- and post-module surveys with five-point Likert-scaled questions and open-ended text responses.
Pre-module survey results showed that learners felt most confident in Conducting a literature search and least confident in Submitting an Institutional Review Board (IRB) protocol at UC. Post-module mean scores were significantly increased compared to pre-module results for all modules and questions (P < 0.05). The response to “The content of this module met my needs” was high across all modules with 236 (84.0%) “yes” responses. Thematic analysis of open-ended text responses from post-module surveys identified several improvements to individual modules and to the overall structure of Research 101. A final quiz of 25 multiple choice questions covering content from all required modules was required. The median score was 21.
Comparison of post-module to pre-module survey scores provided clear evidence of improved learning across all topics. The modules developed were responsive to the students’ needs, and students provided additional improvements for subsequent iterations of Research 101.
Universal Credit (UC) has been rolling out since 2013 to radically alter the UK welfare system. Several UC design features, and its changes to benefit generosity, can lead to claimants struggling to afford rent payments. This article uses fixed-effects panel modelling to investigate UC’s housing insecurity impacts within English local authorities (2014 Q1 - 2019 Q1) by bringing together official UC data and Citizens Advice ‘advice trends’ data on rent arrears/homelessness issues within the social/private rented sectors. The results suggest UC rollout is associated with increases in rent arrears advice issues (though not homelessness advice issues). This impact tended to be greater when UC had been rolled out for longer (and therefore reached more claimants), and was greatest in the social rented sector where people are more vulnerable to arrears. This highlights a need to increase the level of UC payments and address its long wait periods and harsh sanctions.
This chapter looks at the adaptations, mutations, and analogies of Ovidian themes and dynamics of metamorphosis in Greek and Roman narrative poems. The first part offers a sampling of metamorphic moments in Nonnus’ Dionysiaca, arguing for a far-reaching comparability with Ovidian techniques, and also opening up a comparison between Dionysiac metamorphosis and metamorphosis in the Christian story. The second part explores the uses of metamorphosis in Latin Christian poetry on biblical stories, and in narratives of conversion, taking examples from biblical epic, Paulinus of Nola, and Prudentius. The question is posed of whether there is a specifically Christian poetics of metamorphosis.
Invasive plant species (IPS) management in national parks is a complex problem often characterized by the involvement of various organizations with different responsibilities, legal mandates, and jurisdictions. These institutional arrangements shape the structure, function, and decision-making behaviors of organizations and influence management effectiveness. Drawing on institutional theory, this study analyzed institutional arrangements and how these influenced IPS management in Vietnam’s national parks. Data were collected between May and July 2017 using in-depth interviews with 39 key informants with responsibility for IPS management at different institutional levels (national, provincial, and local national parks). Results demonstrated that IPS management in Vietnam’s national parks was characterized by centralized management with overlaps and gaps in vertical institutional relationships that limited the effectiveness of horizontal relationships. These characteristics resulted in a lack of clear guiding regulations and limited resources that restricted decision making and hindered implementation at the local national park level. The study highlights the need for a common set of principles across agencies, governed by an overarching body to promote constructive relationships across the vertical and horizontal institutional dimensions of IPS management.
In May of 2018, PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for enteric pathogens, detected a multistate cluster of illnesses caused by an uncommon molecular subtype of Salmonella serovar Mbandaka. A case was defined as an illness in a person infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Mbandaka with illness onset on or after 3 March 2018 and before 1 September 2018. One-hundred thirty-six cases from 36 states were identified; 35 hospitalisations and no deaths were reported. Ill people ranged in age from <1 year to 95 years (median: 57 years). When standardised questionnaires did not generate a strong hypothesis, opened-ended interviews were performed. Sixty-three of 84 (75%) ultimately reported consuming or possibly consuming a specific sweetened puffed wheat cereal in the week before illness onset. Environmental sampling performed at the cereal manufacturing facility yielded the outbreak strain. The outbreak strain was also isolated from open cereal samples from ill people's homes and from a sealed retail sample. Due to these findings, the brand owner of the product issued a voluntary recall of the cereal on 14 June 2018. Additional investigation of the manufacturing facility identified persistent environmental contamination with Salmonella Mbandaka that was closely genetically related to other isolates in the outbreak. This investigation highlights the ability of Salmonella to survive in low-moisture environments, and the potential for prolonged outbreaks linked to products with long shelf lives and large distribution areas.
Five conjectures are proposed on the text of the third book of Propertius, one a slight alteration of an idea already proposed, four mainly original contributions: 1.23 postremo for post obitum, 4.18 supra uinctos for subter captos, 8.13 seu grege custodum for custodum gregibus (custodum grege seu Heinsius), 10.13 somnos for somnum, 11.40 adulta canis for adusta nota. One additional conjecture is made in passing on the text of Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto 3.4.104, where duces probably ought to be read for uiros.
In this chapter, we study risks associated with movements of interest rates in financial markets. We begin with a brief discussion of the term structure of interest rates. We then discuss commonly used interest rate sensitive securities. This is followed by the study of different measures of sensitivity to interest rates, including duration and convexity. We consider mitigating interest rate risk through hedging and immunization. Finally, we take a more in-depth look at the drivers of interest rate term structure dynamics.
In this chapter, we present the frequency-severity model, which is implicit in common risk calculations used in practice. In this model, the total loss from a risk, or set of risks, is treated as a random sum of random, identically distributed individual losses. If the frequency and severity random variables are independent, then the mean and variance of the aggregate loss can easily be calculated from the moments of the frequency and severity distributions. However, numerical methods are usually required for other metrics, such as quantiles or expected shortfall. We show how to implement these methods and discuss the limitations of this type of model, arising from the independence assumptions.
In this chapter, we consider qualitative and quantitative aspects of risk related to the development, implementation, and uses of quantitative models in enterprise risk management (ERM). First, we discuss the different ways that model risk arises, including defective models, inappropriate applications, and inadequate or inappropriate interpretation of the results. We consider the lifecycle of a model – from development, through regular updating and revision, to the decommissioning stage. We review quantitative approaches to measuring model and parameter uncertainty, based on a Bayesian framework. Finally, we discuss some aspects of model governance, and some potential methods for mitigating model risk.
In this chapter, we review the different methods available to a firm that wants to transfer risk. First, we consider the traditional route of insurance, or reinsurance. We describe the different types of insurance contracts, and analyse their advantages and disadvantages. We then consider captive insurance companies, which are insurance companies that are owned by the organization that is transferring risk. Next, we discuss securitization of risk, where risk is packaged into investments that are sold off in the capital markets. One of the most interesting examples of securitized insurance risk is the catastrophe bond, or cat bond. We also look at examples of securitization of demographic risk, through pandemic bonds and longevity derivatives.