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Background:Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen associated with outbreaks in hospitals and skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). Patients with C. auris can have invasive disease or asymptomatic colonization. Because C. auris can be difficult to treat and eradicate in the environment, the CDC recommends using contact precautions and sporicidal agents during patient care. After C. auris was identified in a patient from an LA County SNF (SNF-X), our institution initiated surveillance screening on high-risk patients. Methods: Nurses identified patients residing at SNF-X on admission and contacted infection prevention. These patients were placed on contact or spore precautions. Bilateral axilla and inguinal folds were swabbed with an Eswab and sent for testing by a clinical laboratory-developed RT PCR assay, which can detect C. auris with high sensitivity and specificity with a rapid turnaround time (4–6 hours). This PCR assay was based on a commercial platform IntegratedCycler (Diasorin) and reagents from the same vendor. Environmental swabs from the index patient’s room were sent for PCR by HardyCHROM Candida agar (Hardy Diagnostics) before and after cleaning with OxyCideTM. PCR-positive samples were set up for culture. Results: In total, 27 patients from SNF-X were screened by PCR. Of these patients, 15 (55%) had a tracheostomy present on admission. Moreover, 26 swabs were negative; 1 was positive in the index patient (cycle threshold [Ct] value, 26). Clinical specimens from the index patient’s blood did not grow C. auris; the tracheostomy sample grew predominantly C. albicans which made identification of C. auris challenging by culture. However, investigational testing of this sample by PCR was positive (Ct value, 31). Environmental swabs collected from the patient room were obtained before and after cleaning (Table 1); all environmental cultures were negative at 5 days. Conclusions: Developing hospital-based, high-risk patient screening for C. auris is feasible and may be useful for controlling the spread of C. auris within the community. Further study is needed to determine the usefulness of PCR for environmental testing to assess the risk of nosocomial transmission of C. auris.
To evaluate the National Health Safety Network (NHSN) hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI) standardized infection ratio (SIR) risk adjustment for general acute-care hospitals with large numbers of intensive care unit (ICU), oncology unit, and hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients.
Retrospective cohort study.
Eight tertiary-care referral general hospitals in California.
We used FY 2016 data and the published 2015 rebaseline NHSN HO-CDI SIR. We compared facility-wide inpatient HO-CDI events and SIRs, with and without ICU data, oncology and/or HCT unit data, and ICU bed adjustment.
For these hospitals, the median unmodified HO-CDI SIR was 1.24 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.15–1.34); 7 hospitals qualified for the highest ICU bed adjustment; 1 hospital received the second highest ICU bed adjustment; and all had oncology-HCT units with no additional adjustment per the NHSN. Removal of ICU data and the ICU bed adjustment decreased HO-CDI events (median, −25%; IQR, −20% to −29%) but increased the SIR at all hospitals (median, 104%; IQR, 90%–105%). Removal of oncology-HCT unit data decreased HO-CDI events (median, −15%; IQR, −14% to −21%) and decreased the SIR at all hospitals (median, −8%; IQR, −4% to −11%).
For tertiary-care referral hospitals with specialized ICUs and a large number of ICU beds, the ICU bed adjustor functions as a global adjustment in the SIR calculation, accounting for the increased complexity of patients in ICUs and non-ICUs at these facilities. However, the SIR decrease with removal of oncology and HCT unit data, even with the ICU bed adjustment, suggests that an additional adjustment should be considered for oncology and HCT units within general hospitals, perhaps similar to what is done for ICU beds in the current SIR.
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