The proliferation, metastasis and therapy response of tumour cells are tightly regulated by interaction among various signalling networks. The microRNAs (miRNAs) can bind to 3′-UTR of mRNA and down-regulate expression of target gene. The miRNAs target various molecular pathways in regulating biological events such as apoptosis, differentiation, angiogenesis and migration. The aberrant expression of miRNAs occurs in cancers and they have both tumour-suppressor and tumour-promoting functions. On the contrary, SOX proteins are capable of binding to DNA and regulating gene expression. SOX2 is a well-known member of SOX family that its overexpression in different cancers to ensure progression and stemness. The present review focuses on modulatory impact of miRNAs on SOX2 in affecting growth, migration and therapy response of cancers. The lncRNAs and circRNAs can function as upstream mediators of miRNA/SOX2 axis in cancers. In addition, NF-κB, TNF-α and SOX17 are among other molecular pathways regulating miRNA/SOX2 axis in cancer. Noteworthy, anti-cancer compounds including bufalin and ovatodiolide are suggested to regulate miRNA/SOX2 axis in cancers. The translation of current findings to clinical course can pave the way to effective treatment of cancer patients and improve their prognosis.