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To quantify the relationship between screening positive for depression and several indicators of the food and nutrition environment in Bangladesh.
We used cross-sectional data from the Food and Agricultural Approaches to Reducing Malnutrition (FAARM) trial in Bangladesh to examine the association of depression in non-peripartum (NPW) and peripartum women (PW) with food and nutrition security using multivariable logistic regression and dominance analysis.
Rural north-eastern Bangladesh.
Women of reproductive age.
Of 2599 women, 40 % were pregnant or up to 1 year postpartum, while 60 % were not peripartum. Overall, 20 % of women screened positive for major depression. In the dominance analysis, indicators of food and nutrition security were among the strongest explanatory factors of depression. Food insecurity (HFIAS) and poor household food consumption (FCS) were associated with more than double the odds of depression (HFIAS: NPW OR = 2·74 and PW OR = 3·22; FCS: NPW OR = 2·38 and PW OR = 2·44). Low dietary diversity (<5 food groups) was associated with approximately double the odds of depression in NPW (OR = 1·80) and PW (OR = 1·99). Consumption of dairy, eggs, fish, vitamin A-rich and vitamin C-rich foods was associated with reduced odds of depression. Anaemia was not associated with depression. Low BMI (<18·5 kg/m2) was also associated with depression (NPW: OR = 1·40).
Depression among women in Bangladesh was associated with many aspects of food and nutrition security, also after controlling for socio-economic factors. Further investigation into the direction of causality and interventions to improve diets and reduce depression among women in low- and middle-income countries are urgently needed.
To examine the association between overweight and obesity and serum ferritin among women of reproductive age (15–49 years) in Nicaragua, considering the effect of α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), a marker of inflammation.
We analysed data from the 2004–05 Nicaraguan Integrated Surveillance System for Nutrition Interventions. Three logistic regression models were analysed with low serum ferritin (<15 μg/l) as the dependent variable: (i) overweight or obese status and covariates; (ii) model 1 plus AGP; and (iii) model 1 restricted to only women with normal AGP levels (≤1·0 g/l).
Included in this analysis were 832 non-pregnant mother/caregivers (15–49 years) surveyed in 2004–2005.
In the sample, prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31·8 % and 19·2 %, respectively, and 27·6 % had low serum ferritin. In model 1, the adjusted OR of low serum ferritin was 0·74 (95 % CI 0·52, 1·05) for overweight women and 0·42 (95 % CI 0·26, 0·65) for obese women. In model 2, AGP was significantly independently associated with low serum ferritin (adjusted OR=0·56, 95 % CI 0·34, 0·92) while the adjusted OR for overweight and obesity were largely unchanged. Excluding women with elevated AGP did not appreciably affect the relationship between overweight or obesity and low serum ferritin (model 3).
Overall, in this population of reproductive-age women, obese women were less likely to have low serum ferritin levels, and this was independent of inflammation as measured by AGP.
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