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Several hypotheses may explain the association between substance use, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression. However, few studies have utilized a large multisite dataset to understand this complex relationship. Our study assessed the relationship between alcohol and cannabis use trajectories and PTSD and depression symptoms across 3 months in recently trauma-exposed civilians.
In total, 1618 (1037 female) participants provided self-report data on past 30-day alcohol and cannabis use and PTSD and depression symptoms during their emergency department (baseline) visit. We reassessed participant's substance use and clinical symptoms 2, 8, and 12 weeks posttrauma. Latent class mixture modeling determined alcohol and cannabis use trajectories in the sample. Changes in PTSD and depression symptoms were assessed across alcohol and cannabis use trajectories via a mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of variance.
Three trajectory classes (low, high, increasing use) provided the best model fit for alcohol and cannabis use. The low alcohol use class exhibited lower PTSD symptoms at baseline than the high use class; the low cannabis use class exhibited lower PTSD and depression symptoms at baseline than the high and increasing use classes; these symptoms greatly increased at week 8 and declined at week 12. Participants who already use alcohol and cannabis exhibited greater PTSD and depression symptoms at baseline that increased at week 8 with a decrease in symptoms at week 12.
Our findings suggest that alcohol and cannabis use trajectories are associated with the intensity of posttrauma psychopathology. These findings could potentially inform the timing of therapeutic strategies.
The relations of children's coping strategies and coping efficacy
to parent socialization and child adjustment were examined in a sample of
school-age children that included families in which some of the
grandparents and/or parents had an alcoholism diagnosis. Parents and
older children reported on the children's coping strategies; parents
reported on their parenting behavior; and teachers reported on
children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Measures of
parent socialization were associated with parents' and
children's reports of active coping strategies and parents'
reports of both support-seeking coping and coping efficacy. Some of these
relations were moderated by familial alcohol status. Children higher in
parent-reported active/support-seeking coping and coping efficacy were
rated lower in teacher-reported externalizing and internalizing adjustment
problems. The findings were consistent with the view that
active/support-seeking coping and coping efficacy mediated the
association of parent socialization to children's psychological
adjustment and that this relation was sometimes moderated by parental
alcohol status.This research was supported by
a grant from the National Institute of Drug Abuse (DA05227; Laurie Chassin,
Principle Investigator, Nancy Eisenberg, Co-Principal
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