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Relational aggression is defined as behaviours intended to harm others by damaging their relationships. Drawing from two theoretical perspectives, the social process model and the peer socialisation model, we tested how relational aggression and victimisation could influence each other over time, and examined peer status and gender as moderators of these bidirectional associations. We hypothesised that aggression would lead to increasing victimisation and victimisation to increasing aggression, and that the association from aggression to later victimisation would be weaker for more popular and preferred youth, especially girls. Participants were 328 Australian early adolescents (172 boys, 156 girls) in Grades 5, 6 or 7, who nominated classmates who were aggressive, victimised, popular, and preferred. Results showed support for the role of status and gender in the bidirectional associations between aggression and victimisation. Relational aggression was associated with more T2 relational victimisation only among adolescents who were low in popularity and among girls with low social preference. Victimisation was associated with T2 aggressive behaviour among more popular girls. Relational victimisation was also associated with less T2 aggression among popular boys. Findings highlight the complexities introduced by gender and social status for the unfolding of early adolescent relational aggression and victimisation.
Founded in the social process model, the aim of this study was to identify whether the associations of relational aggression with concurrent and subsequent relational victimization differed depending on early adolescents' personal vulnerabilities and gender. The vulnerabilities of interest were social-information processing variables that convey greater emotional sensitivity, including rejection sensitivity, fear of negative evaluation, and avoidance of intimacy. Participants were 358 early adolescents (176 boys, 178 girls) aged 9 to 13 years. Relational aggression and victimization were assessed via peer nominations, whereas the three indicators of emotional sensitivity were assessed via self-report. Overall, results revealed greater relational aggression at Time 1 to be associated with greater relational victimization at both Time 1 and Time 2. However, this finding was qualified by both emotional sensitivity and gender. When considered separately, girls who were relationally aggressive and emotionally sensitive were at increased risk of victimization at both assessment points. In contrast, no link was found between relational aggression and victimization for boys, although relational vulnerabilities did have unique associations with boys' relational victimization. These findings have implications for our understanding of relational aggression and victimization, as well as for the development of interventions aimed at reducing these problems.
This study reported on the efficacy of Reciprocal Skills Training (RST), a family-based treatment modality for childhood externalising disorders. Children (N = 57) ranging from 7 to 12 years old who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder were randomly allocated to RST (in either a hospital or clinical setting) or a waiting-list control group. At posttreatment, no significant differences were observed across the two treatment settings. Results indicated that 95.5% of children in the hospital setting and 72.2% of children in the clinical setting no longer met criteria for oppositional defiant disorder, compared to 30% of children on the waiting list. Children in the treatment groups also obtained significantly lower scores on the Externalising scale of the Child Behaviour Checklist, compared to the waiting-list group. In addition, mothers' levels of stress and depression were significantly reduced at posttreatment, compared to mothers of children on the waiting list. These findings suggest that RST is an effective treatment modality for children displaying externalising behaviours, as well as for their mothers. The results are discussed in terms of limitations of the current study and future directions for research and clinical practice.
There is evidence that tamoxifen treatment of BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers for prior breast cancer increases risk of endometrioid subtype endometrial cancer (EC), and suggestive evidence that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers may be predisposed to EC in the absence of tamoxifen exposure. We assessed the association of EC with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation status in Australasian breast-ovarian families. Report of at least one case of EC was significantly greater in BRCA1-positive families (35/218 (16%); p = .03) and non-significantly greater in BRCA2-positive families (23/189 (12%); p = .6), compared to high-risk breast cancer families without a BRCA1/2 mutation (86/796 (11%)). EC was the first/concurrent cancer for 41% of EC cases with multiple cancer diagnoses from BRCA1/2 families, and early onset for most of these diagnoses. Mutation status was imputed for ungeno-typed individuals from 57 BRCA1/2 pedigrees reporting EC using BRCAPRO. Effects of genotype on EC diagnosis age, and interaction with tamoxifen therapy, were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. EC risk was non-significantly marginally greater for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio = 1.25, 95%CI = 0.65–2.41), and BRCA2 carriers (HR = 1.12, 95%CI = 0.51–2.45), compared to non-carrier family members. Tamoxifen therapy was highly significantly associated with EC (HR = 6.68, 95%CI = 3.12–15.15; p = 1.7 x 10-6) in BRCA1/2 families, with no evidence for interaction between tamoxifen therapy and BRCA1/2 genotype. Our family-based study supports a 7-fold increase in EC risk with tamoxifen exposure for female family members from BRCA1/2 families. Early onset EC in carriers without tamoxifen use suggests that further study is required to assess association of modest EC risk with BRCA1/2 mutation status alone.
Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a major health issue in Queensland, Australia, which has the world's highest incidence. Recent molecular and epidemiologic studies suggest that CMM arises through multiple etiological pathways involving gene–environment interactions. Understanding the potential mechanisms leading to CMM requires larger studies than those previously conducted. This article describes the design and baseline characteristics of Q-MEGA, the Queensland Study of Melanoma: Environmental and Genetic Associations, which followed up 4 population-based samples of CMM patients in Queensland, including children, adolescents, men aged over 50, and a large sample of adult cases and their families, including twins. Q-MEGA aims to investigate the roles of genetic and environmental factors, and their interaction, in the etiology of melanoma. Three thousand, four hundred and seventy-one participants took part in the follow-up study and were administered a computer-assisted telephone interview in 2002–2005. Updated data on environmental and phenotypic risk factors, and 2777 blood samples were collected from interviewed participants as well as a subset of relatives. This study provides a large and well-described population-based sample of CMM cases with follow-up data. Characteristics of the cases and repeatability of sun exposure and phenotype measures between the baseline and the follow-up surveys, from 6 to 17 years later, are also described.
Local government re-organisation, educational changes and increasing costs of materials are just some of the external threats faced by UK public libraries. Internally the threats come chiefly from the need for financial savings, but they can come from our own unwillingness to make change. However it is an exciting time, with new initiatives coming from government particularly in the areas of educational development and information technology, and opportunities for greater cohesion in planning and management. All these provide challenges for librarians in the visual arts.
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