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We aimed at evaluating the association of maternal pre-pregnancy nutritional status with offspring anthropometry and body composition. We also evaluated whether these associations were modified by gender, diet and physical activity and mediated by birth weight.
Birth cohort study.
Waist circumference was measured with an inextensible tape, and fat and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for possible confounders and allele score of BMI. We carried out mediation analysis using G-formula.
In 1982, 1993 and 2004, all maternity hospitals in Pelotas (South Brazil) were visited daily and all live births whose families lived in the urban area of the city were evaluated. These subjects have been followed up at different ages.
Offspring of obese mothers had on average higher BMI, waist circumference and fat mass index than those of normal weight mothers, and these differences were higher among daughters. The magnitudes of the association were similar in the cohorts, except for height, where the association pattern was not clear. In the 1982 cohort, further adjustment for a BMI allele score had no material influence on the magnitude of the associations. Mediation analyses showed that birth weight captured part of this association.
Our findings suggest that maternal pre-pregnancy nutritional status is positively associated with offspring BMI and adiposity in offspring. And this association is higher among daughters whose mother was overweight or obese and, birth weight explains part of this association.
To investigate the prevalence and socio-economic inequalities in breast milk, breast milk substitutes (BMS) and other non-human milk consumption, by children under 2 years in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).
We analysed the prevalence of continued breast-feeding at 1 and 2 years and frequency of formula and other non-human milk consumption by age in months. Indicators were estimated through 24-h dietary recall. Absolute and relative wealth indicators were used to describe within- and between-country socio-economic inequalities.
Nationally representative surveys from 2010 onwards from eighty-six LMIC.
394 977 children aged under 2 years.
Breast-feeding declined sharply as children became older in all LMIC, especially in upper-middle-income countries. BMS consumption peaked at 6 months of age in low/lower-middle-income countries and at around 12 months in upper-middle-income countries. Irrespective of country, BMS consumption was higher in children from wealthier families, and breast-feeding in children from poorer families. Multilevel linear regression analysis showed that BMS consumption was positively associated with absolute income, and breast-feeding negatively associated. Findings for other non-human milk consumption were less straightforward. Unmeasured factors at country level explained a substantial proportion of overall variability in BMS consumption and breast-feeding.
Breast-feeding falls sharply as children become older, especially in wealthier families in upper-middle-income countries; this same group also consumes more BMS at any age. Country-level factors play an important role in explaining BMS consumption by all family wealth groups, suggesting that BMS marketing at national level might be partly responsible for the observed differences.
To assess the stability and changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption over a 3-year period during adolescence in a population-based birth cohort.
Longitudinal descriptive study. FV consumption was collected in 2008 and 2011/12 using an FFQ. We conducted descriptive analyses of medians to assess the trends in FV intake over time. Stability of FV intake was assessed by percentage of agreement and kappa coefficients.
Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Adolescents from 15 to 18 years of age (n 3915).
We observed an overall slight decrease in FV consumption during adolescence and also a moderate stability, especially in those with higher socio-economic status (proportion of agreement 38·6 % and 40·5 % for boys and girls, respectively). About a half of those consuming low levels of FV at 15 years of age still consumed low levels 3 years later.
Our results showed that FV consumption presented a moderate stability across a 3-year period during adolescence, especially in those with higher socio-economic status. Given the great proportions of non-communicable diseases such as CVD, diabetes and obesity, knowledge about the patterns of FV consumption during adolescence has implications for health promotion interventions.
Much is known about national trends in child undernutrition, but there is little information on how socio-economic inequalities are evolving over time. We aimed to assess socio-economic inequalities in stunting prevalence over time.
We selected nationally representative surveys carried out since the mid-1990s for which information was available on asset indices and on child anthropometry. We identified twenty-five countries that had at least two surveys over an interval of 10 years or more, totalling eighty-seven surveys. Stunting prevalence was calculated according to wealth quintiles. Absolute and relative inequalities were calculated and time trends were obtained by regression.
Nationally representative household surveys from twenty-five low- and middle-income countries.
Children <5 years of age.
National prevalence declined significantly in twenty-two of the twenty-five countries. In eighteen out of twenty-five countries, relative reductions were higher among the rich than among the poor. Overall, there was no indication that inequalities improved. Striking examples are Nepal, with a 17·0 percentage points decline in stunting per decade, but where inequalities increased sharply; and Brazil, where stunting fell by 6·7 percentage points and inequalities were all but eliminated.
Global progress in reducing stunting has not been accompanied by improved equity, but countries varied markedly in how successful they were in reducing prevalence among the poorest children. It is important to document how some countries were able to reduce inequalities, so that these lessons can be used to foster global progress, particularly in light of the increased importance of within-country inequalities in the post-2015 agenda.
To verify the impact of flour fortification on anaemia in Brazilian children. The survey also investigated the role of Fe deficiency as a cause of anaemia and estimated the bioavailability of the Fe in the children's diet. This local study was complemented by a nationwide survey of the types of Fe compounds added to flour.
Series of population-based surveys conducted in 2004 (baseline study), 2005, 2006 and 2008.
Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Children under 6 years of age residing in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil (n 507 in 2004; n 960 in 2005; n 893 in 2006; n 799 in 2008). In 2008, a sub-sample of children (n 114) provided venous blood samples to measure body Fe reserve parameters (ferritin and transferrin saturation).
We found no impact of fortification, with an increase in anaemia prevalence among children under 24 months of age. Hb levels decreased by 0·9 g/dl in this age group between 2004 and 2008 (10·9 g/dl to 10·0 g/dl; P < 0·001). Roughly 50 % of cases of anaemia were estimated to be due to Fe deficiency. Half of the mills surveyed used reduced Fe to fortify wheat flour. Total Fe intake from all foodstuffs was adequate for 88·6 % of the children, but its bioavailability was only 5 %.
The low bioavailability of the Fe compounds added to flours, combined with the poor quality of children's diets, account for the lack of impact of mandatory fortification.
We estimate attributable fractions, deaths and years of life lost among infants and children ≤2 years of age due to suboptimal breast-feeding in developing countries.
We compare actual practices to a minimum exposure pattern consisting of exclusive breast-feeding for infants ≤6 months of age and continued breast-feeding for older infants and children ≤2 years of age. For infants, we consider deaths due to diarrhoeal disease and lower respiratory tract infections, and deaths due to all causes are considered in the second year of life. Outcome measures are attributable fractions, deaths, years of life lost and offsetting deaths potentially caused by mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breast-feeding.
Infants and children ≤2 years of age.
Attributable fractions for deaths due to diarrhoeal disease and lower respiratory tract infections are 55% and 53%, respectively, for the first six months of infancy, 20% and 18% for the second six months, and are 20% for all-cause deaths in the second year of life. Globally, as many as 1.45 million lives (117 million years of life) are lost due to suboptimal breast-feeding in developing countries. Offsetting deaths caused by mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breast-feeding could be as high as 242 000 (18.8 million years of life lost) if relevant World Health Organization recommendations are not followed.
The size of the gap between current practice and recommendations is striking when one considers breast-feeding involves no out-of-pocket costs, that there exists universal consensus on best practices, and that implementing current international recommendations could potentially save 1.45 million children's lives each year.
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