To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) alters women's neurobiological stress response systems. We propose that individual differences early in the attentional processing of threats are associated with these neurobiological mechanisms and contribute to mental illness in this population.
We assessed attentional bias in relation to threat (AB) in women survivors of IPV (n = 69) and controls (n = 36), and examined overall cortisol secretion using hair cortisol (HC), and stress responsiveness measuring salivary cortisol and α-amylase (sAA) before (T0), and after (T1, T2) an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test). We used repeated-measures ANCOVAs to explore the associations between Group (IPV, control) and AB with acute stress response, and regression models to examine the associations with mental health symptoms.
There were no between-group differences in HC levels. An interaction between Group and AB was found regarding cortisol reactivity (p < 0.05). IPV women with threat avoidance AB showed a blunted cortisol response compared to controls and to IPV participants with threat vigilance AB. The association between sAA reactivity and the interaction between Group, AB, and time approached significance (p = 0.07), with a trend to lower sAA levels particularly in IPV women with threat avoidance AB. Group and cortisol reactivity were associated with symptoms of depression, generalized anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (8–20% explained variance).
Threat avoidance AB is associated with blunted acute cortisol response among women exposed to chronic stress (IPV). Experiencing IPV and acute cortisol response appear to be clearly implicated in long-term mental health problems.
Many individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have limited access to first-line treatments, warranting the development of remotely-delivered treatments. Attention bias modification (ABM), targeting perturbed threat-related attentional patterns, shows promise when delivered in-person. However, previous studies found ABM to be ineffective when delivered remotely. Randomized clinical trials usually applied two variations of ABM: ABM away from threat or attention control training (ACT) balancing attention between threat-related and neutral stimuli. We tested remotely-delivered ACT/ABM with tighter supervision and video-based interactions that resemble in-clinic protocols. We expected to replicate the results of in-clinic trials, in which ACT outperformed ABM for PTSD.
In this double-blinded, parallel-group randomized controlled trial, 60 patients diagnosed with PTSD were randomized (ABM n = 30; ACT n = 30). Patients performed eight bi-weekly remotely-delivered supervised ABM/ACT sessions. Symptoms were assessed pre- and post-treatment with Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale 5 (CAPS-5) severity score and PTSD diagnosis as the primary outcomes. Current depressive episode, current anxiety-related comorbidity, and time elapsed since the trauma were examined as potential moderators of treatment outcome.
Significant decrease in CAPS-5 severity scores and PTSD diagnosis was observed following both ACT and ABM with no between-group difference. Patients without depression or whose trauma occurred more recently had greater symptom reduction in the ACT than the ABM group.
Contrary to our expectation, symptoms decreased similarly following ACT and ABM. Moderator analyses suggest advantage for ACT in non-depressed patients and patients whose trauma occurred more recently. Further refinements in remotely-delivered ABM/ACT may be needed.
Electrical injury can result in a variety of cardiac abnormalities. We evaluate the cardiac effects in patients injured by electric shock and treated in our medical centre.
We reviewed retrospectively the findings in 52 children, aged from 7 months to 17 years, with a mean age of 10.1 ± 5.1 years, all evaluated and treated for accidental electric shock from January, 1992, through July, 2004. Relevant data regarding clinical presentation, electrocardiogram recording and cardiac enzymes was compiled. We also evaluated the echocardiographic findings, clinical course, treatment, and outcome.
Syncope had been the presenting symptom in 17 children (33%), asystole in 1 patient, and ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia in 2 patients. Characteristic changes of acute ischaemia of the anterior wall on the basis of changes in the ST segments were noted in 2 patients. Total creatine phosphokinase was measured in 33 children (63%), and was elevated in 20. Creatine phosphokinase-MB was measured in 11 patients, and was abnormal in six (54%). Troponin was measured in three children, and was significantly high in one (33%). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and mechanical ventilation for a significant period was necessary in 5 patients, of whom 4 (80%) survived. None of the survivors was left with any cardiac disability following the acute event.
Significant cardiac damage and complications are rare in children and young adults who survive incidental electrocution. Most of the cardiac events are observed during the acute phase and immediately subsequent to electrocution. No delayed complications are anticipated.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.