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Authoritarian and retributive discipline policies that characterize the crime control model of school discipline feed into a cycle of harm whereby aggressive behaviors, including retribution and revenge, are likely to be reinforced as normative responses to an unjust and unequal environment. These policies are ineffective at reducing violence and delinquency, can result in poor academic outcomes, are disproportionately applied, and have negative impacts on the school climate. They also fail to capture the importance of teaching students the social and behavioral skills that are associated with better academic and behavioral outcomes. By contrast, the school climate is an important malleable component that can have positive impacts on a variety of outcomes. Whole school approaches to positive discipline such as Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports and Restorative Justice are far more promising policies to improving the school climate and associated student outcomes, including retaliatory behavior.
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