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Little is known about when youth may be at greatest risk for attempting suicide, which is critically important information for the parents, caregivers, and professionals who care for youth at risk. This study used adolescent and parent reports, and a case-crossover, within-subject design to identify 24-hour warning signs (WS) for suicide attempts.
Adolescents (N = 1094, ages 13 to 18) with one or more suicide risk factors were enrolled and invited to complete bi-weekly, 8–10 item text message surveys for 18 months. Adolescents who reported a suicide attempt (survey item) were invited to participate in an interview regarding their thoughts, feelings/emotions, and behaviors/events during the 24-hours prior to their attempt (case period) and a prior 24-hour period (control period). Their parents participated in an interview regarding the adolescents’ behaviors/events during these same periods. Adolescent or adolescent and parent interviews were completed for 105 adolescents (81.9% female; 66.7% White, 19.0% Black, 14.3% other).
Both parent and adolescent reports of suicidal communications and withdrawal from social and other activities differentiated case and control periods. Adolescent reports also identified feelings (self-hate, emotional pain, rush of feelings, lower levels of rage toward others), cognitions (suicidal rumination, perceived burdensomeness, anger/hostility), and serious conflict with parents as WS in multi-variable models.
This study identified 24-hour WS in the domains of cognitions, feelings, and behaviors/events, providing an evidence base for the dissemination of information about signs of proximal risk for adolescent suicide attempts.
This research compared seven field bindweed control treatments to a check in a 3-yr winter wheat-sorghum-fallow rotation. Treatments included 3 wk intervals of sweep tillage combined with one or two annual applications of 2,4-D (tillage and 2,4-D). Two other treatments were the same as tillage and 2,4-D, except dicamba or a mixture of picloram and 2,4-D were applied once in October after wheat harvest. A fourth treatment was identical to tillage and 2,4-D, except imazapyr was sprayed immediately after harvest of wheat. Also, three no-tillage systems using glyphosate and 2,4-D at monthly intervals were supplemented with either dicamba, picloram and 2,4-D, or imazapyr the same as in treatments involving tillage and 2,4-D. The check was sweep tilled every 6 wk. All treatments controlled field bindweed in one rotation of two fallow periods and two crops. After control was accomplished, wheat and sorghum yields were about twice the check. Using 1995 costs and returns, profit for an owner-operator for the two fallow periods and two crops was $123 ha−1 for tillage and 2,4-D, compared to $19 ha−1 for the check. Tillage and 2,4-D supplemented with picloram or imazapyr were almost as profitable as tillage and 2,4-D. Because of high herbicide cost and low yields, no-tillage treatments lost money. Profits with a 33:67 owner-tenant rental agreement were $105 and $21 ha−1, respectively, for owner and tenant using tillage and 2,4-D. With no field bindweed control practice, the tenant lost $33 ha−1 and the owner made $51 ha−1.
Field bindweed infests millions of hectares in the Great Plains greatly reducing productivity and value of land. The standard practice for field bindweed control is sweep tillage at 3 wk intervals combined with one or two annual 2,4-D) applications during the 14 mo fallow period in a winter wheat-fallow crop rotation. This was compared to tillage and 2,4-D in conjunction with dicamba or a mixture of picloram+2,4-D applied once during the first October of the first 14 mo fallow period. Also, three no-tillage systems were included using glyphosate+2,4-D at monthly intervals. Two of the treatments were supplemented with dicamba, or picloram+2,4-D as in the sweep tillage system. All treatments controlled field bindweed in two fallow periods and two winter wheat crops, and increased winter wheat yields to about twice the control. Sweep tillage at 3 wk intervals combined with 2,4-D resulted in $36 ha−1 profit for an owner-operator compared to $15 ha−1 loss with no herbicide or tillage treatment. On average no-tillage lost $35 ha−1. Other treatments, although controlling field bindweed, lost from 35 to $186 ha−1. To determine if long-term benefit after control was achieved, average yields for the area were used to calculate profits using normal farming practices. Profits were 136, 78, and $-50 ha−1, respectively, for sweep tillage and 2,4-D, no-tillage, and the untreated check. In a standard 33:67 owner-tenant rental, profits to the owner for the control period were 90, −33, and $43 ha−1, respectively for tillage and 2,4-D, no-tillage, and untreated check. The tenant lost from $24 to 69 ha−1 for the three systems indicating owners must modify rental agreements during a field bindweed control program.
Jointed goatgrass, downy brome, and horseweed are increasingly troublesome winter annual weeds during fallow periods in conservation-tillage systems in the southern Great Plains. These experiments determined the optimum weed size, vigor, and minimum herbicide rate required for 95% or better control of these weeds on fallow land. Jointed goatgrass and downy brome were controlled best when plants were 10 cm or less tall and growing vigorously at time of treatment. Horseweed was controlled best when plants were 30 cm tall and growing vigorously. Based on local retail and application costs and assuming optimum conditions for control, the two most economical herbicide treatments that controlled each weed 95% or better were: jointed goatgrass, clethodim at 250 g ai/ha and glyphosate + 2,4-D at 249 + 479 g ae/ha; downy brome, quizalofop at 18 g ai/ha and glyphosate + 2,4-D at 582 + 950 g ae/ha; and horseweed, 2,4-D at 560 g ae/ha and metsulfuron at 5 g ai/ha.