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To characterize and compare severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)–specific immune responses in plasma and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from nursing home residents during and after natural infection.
SARS-CoV-2–infected nursing home residents.
A convenience sample of 14 SARS-CoV-2–infected nursing home residents, enrolled 4–13 days after real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction diagnosis, were followed for 42 days. After diagnosis, plasma SARS-CoV-2–specific pan-Immunoglobulin (Ig), IgG, IgA, IgM, and neutralizing antibodies were measured at 5 time points, and GCF SARS-CoV-2–specific IgG and IgA were measured at 4 time points.
All participants demonstrated immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among 12 phlebotomized participants, plasma was positive for pan-Ig and IgG in all 12 participants. Neutralizing antibodies were positive in 11 participants; IgM was positive in 10 participants, and IgA was positive in 9 participants. Among 14 participants with GCF specimens, GCF was positive for IgG in 13 participants and for IgA in 12 participants. Immunoglobulin responses in plasma and GCF had similar kinetics; median times to peak antibody response were similar across specimen types (4 weeks for IgG; 3 weeks for IgA). Participants with pan-Ig, IgG, and IgA detected in plasma and GCF IgG remained positive throughout this evaluation, 46–55 days after diagnosis. All participants were viral-culture negative by the first detection of antibodies.
Nursing home residents had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in plasma and GCF after infection. Kinetics of antibodies detected in GCF mirrored those from plasma. Noninvasive GCF may be useful for detecting and monitoring immunologic responses in populations unable or unwilling to be phlebotomized.
Background: Due to limited therapeutic options and potential for spread, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)-producing New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases (NDMs) are a public health priority. We investigated the epidemiology of NDM-producing CRE reported to the CDC to clarify its distribution and relative prevalence. Methods: The CDC’s Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network supports molecular testing of CRE for 5 carbapenemases nationally. Although KPC is the most common carbapenemase in the United States, non-KPC carbapenemases are a growing concern. We analyzed CRE with any of 4 non-KPC plasmid-mediated carbapenemases (NDM, VIM, IMP, or OXA-48 type) isolated from specimens collected from January 1, 2017, through June 30, 2019; only a patient’s first isolate per organism–carbapenemase combination was included. We excluded isolates from specimen sources associated with colonization screening (eg, perirectal). We compared the proportion of NDM-producing CRE to all non-KPC–producing CP-CRE between period A (January to June 2018) and period B (January to June 2019). Health departments and the CDC collected additional exposure and molecular information in selected states to better describe current NDM-producing CRE epidemiology. Results: Overall, 47 states reported 1,013 non–KPC-producing CP-CRE (range/state, 1–109 isolates; median, 11 isolates); 46 states reported 631 NDM-producing CRE (range/state, 1–84; median, 6). NDM-producing CRE increased quarterly from the third quarter of 2018 through the second quarter of 2019; CP-CRE isolates with other non-KPC carbapenemases remained stable (Fig. 1). In period A, 124 of 216 emerging CP-CRE had NDM (57.1%), compared with 255 of 359 emerging CP-CRE (71.0%) during period B (P = .1179). Among NDM-producing CRE, the proportion of Enterobacter spp increased from 10.5% in 2018 to 18.4% in 2019 (P = .0467) (Fig. 2). In total, 18 states reported more NDM-producing CRE in the first 6 months of 2019 than in all of 2018. Connecticut, Ohio, and Oregon were among states that conducted detailed investigations; these 3 states identified 24 NDM-producing CRE isolates from 23 patients in period B. Overall, 5 (21.7%) of 22 patients with history available traveled internationally ≤12 months prior to culture; 17 (73.9%) acquired NDM-producing CRE domestically. Among 15 isolates sequenced, 8 (53.3%) carried NDM-5 (6 E. coli, 1 Enterobacter spp and 1 Klebsiella spp) and 7 (46.7%) carried NDM-1 (6 Enterobacter spp and 1 Klebsiella spp). Species were diverse; no single strain type was shared by >2 isolates. Conclusions: Detection of NDM-producing CRE has increased across the AR Lab Network. Among states with detailed information available, domestic acquisition was common, and no single variant or strain predominated. Aggressive public health response and further understanding of current US NDM-CRE epidemiology are needed to prevent further spread.
Background: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is commonly used for the treatment of noninvasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Following a report from 2 facilities of increased trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance among MRSA infections, we assessed changes in resistance nationally and by state. Methods: We reviewed antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole among S. aureus isolates associated with surgical site infections (SSIs), central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) from acute-care hospitals reported to the NHSN Device and Procedure Module from 2012 to 2018. We compared the pooled mean percentage of isolates nonsusceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 2012 and 2018, stratified by MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Among MRSA isolates, we compared the percentage nonsusceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole by healthcare-associated infection (HAI) type and state in 2012 and 2018. States with ≥20 MRSA isolates with AST reported each year were included in the state-level analysis. Results: Overall, 36,587 MRSA isolates and 46,824 MSSA isolates were reported from 2012 to 2018. Moreover, >80% of MRSA and MSSA isolates had trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole AST reported each year. Nationally, the percentage of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole nonsusceptible among MRSA isolates was 3.9% in 2012 compared to 6.5% in 2018 (P < .001), but it was unchanged among MSSA isolates during the same period (1.1% in 2012 vs 1.4% in 2018; P = .08). Among MRSA surgical site infections (SSIs), the proportion of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole nonsusceptible isolates was 3.1% in 2012 versus 6.1% in 2018 (P < .001) but did not change significantly for CLABSIs or CAUTIs (Fig. 1). Among the 32 states that met the inclusion criteria, there were no significant decreases, whereas 4 (12.5%) showed significant increases in the percentage of MRSA that were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole nonsusceptible in 2018 compared to 2012: New Jersey (2.4% in 2012 vs 19.3% in 2018; P <.001); Florida (9.1% in 2012 vs 22.4% in 2018; P < .001); Maryland (0.0% in 2012 vs 10.9% in 2018; P < .01); and Pennsylvania (1.7% in 2012 vs 6.5% in 2018; P < .001). Conclusions: Nationally, there was a modest but significant increase in the percentage of MRSA HAI isolates nonsusceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 2018 compared to 2012; however, 3 of 4 states with significant increases in nonsusceptibility had substantial, potentially clinically relevant increases (>10%). Ongoing characterization of MRSA isolates from Florida and New Jersey may provide insight into the underlying cause of these shifting patterns in trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance among MRSA. Healthcare personnel should select appropriate antibiotic regimens based on local resistance patterns, should monitor patients for treatment failure, and should report changes in resistance to the appropriate public health department.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are multidrug-resistant bacteria that persist in healthcare environments, particularly in wastewater reservoirs where they can pose risks for patients. Healthcare-associated outbreaks of carbapenemase-producing (CP) CRE can be propagated via a single bacterial strain and/or mobile genetic element (MGEs) harboring a carbapenemase gene. Unlike chromosomally encoded carbapenemases, CP-MGEs can rapidly facilitate the spread of these carbapenemase genes across bacterial strains. From July 2017 to December 2018, the Florida Department of Health in Orange County investigated an outbreak of patients colonized with various bacterial genera of CP-CRE carrying the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase gene (blaKPC), indicating a potential MGE reservoir. WGS was performed to identify transmission pathways and linked cases, beyond what traditional testing provides. Methods: We selected a subset of blaKPC-harboring isolates for WGS on short- and long-read platforms (MiSeq, PacBio, MinION) to achieve high quality, complete genome and plasmid assemblies. Laboratory, clinical, and epidemiological data were combined to identify possible transmission events, common sources, and common MGEs. Results: Eleven clinical isolates from 5 genera (Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Morganella, Providencia, and Serratia), and 10 environmental isolates collected from the pharmacy and medication room, ICU, and patient rooms and comprising 4 genera (Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Serratia) underwent WGS. Although short-read WGS elucidated additional subsets of closely related strains, high genomic diversity was also observed within some species: Citrobacter freundii: 13,483 single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), 67% core genome; Enterobacter spp: 3–18,563 SNVs; 34%; and K. pneumoniae: 8–18,460 SNVs, 80%. Further analysis using long-read hybrid assemblies revealed 2 unique blaKPC-harboring plasmids. The first plasmid, pDHQP20145-KPC3 (50 kb), contained the blaKPC-3 gene and was detected in both patient and environmental isolates across 3 of the 5 sequenced genera. The second plasmid, pDHQP201745-KPC2 (180 kb), contained the blaKPC-2 gene, and was found across 2 CP-CRE genera isolated from both patients and the environment, including isolates from the medication room sink drain and a patient who received compounded oral medications. Conclusion: WGS identified 2 blaKPC-harboring plasmids, including pDHQP20145-KPC3, which was found across 3 genera of CP-CRE isolated from patients and the environment, supporting prolonged transmission of KPC-producing CRE in this facility, and a CP-MGE driving transmission. The rapid spread of emerging, potentially mobile, antimicrobial resistance has increased our need to further explore the genomic environment of promiscuous MGEs. WGS can contribute to infection control beyond traditional subtyping methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), as MGEs increasingly represent an important driver of transmission.
To investigate an outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections and colonization in a neonatal intensive care unit.
Infection control assessment, environmental evaluation, and case-control study.
Newly built community-based hospital, 28-bed neonatal intensive care unit.
Neonatal intensive care unit patients receiving care between June 1, 2013, and September 30, 2014.
Case finding was performed through microbiology record review. Infection control observations, interviews, and environmental assessment were performed. A matched case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors for P. aeruginosa infection. Patient and environmental isolates were collected for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine strain relatedness.
In total, 31 cases were identified. Case clusters were temporally associated with absence of point-of-use filters on faucets in patient rooms. After adjusting for gestational age, case patients were more likely to have been in a room without a point-of-use filter (odds ratio [OR], 37.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.16–∞). Case patients had higher odds of exposure to peripherally inserted central catheters (OR, 7.20; 95% CI, 1.75–37.30) and invasive ventilation (OR, 5.79; 95% CI, 1.39–30.62). Of 42 environmental samples, 28 (67%) grew P. aeruginosa. Isolates from the 2 most recent case patients were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis from water-related samples obtained from these case-patient rooms.
This outbreak was attributed to contaminated water. Interruption of the outbreak with point-of-use filters provided a short-term solution; however, eradication of P. aeruginosa in water and fixtures was necessary to protect patients. This outbreak highlights the importance of understanding the risks of stagnant water in healthcare facilities.
We assessed the impact of a reflex urine culture protocol, an intervention aimed to reduce unnecessary urine culturing, in intensive care units at a tertiary care hospital. Significant decreases in urine culturing rates and reported rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infection followed implementation of the protocol.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:606–609
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