Tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia is one of the most challenging congenital cardiac malformations, for the morphologist, cardiologist and surgeon alike. Much of the difficulty in this lesion concerns the nature and development of pulmonary arterial supply, and the manner in which complete segmental supply to the lungs can be successfully restored or maintained. In this review, we discuss the anatomy and nomenclature of the lesion, emphasising the variability that can occur in pulmonary arterial anatomy, particularly in the presence of systemic-to-pulmonary collateral arteries. We speculate on the likely embryologic origins of these connections. Then by means of anatomic-clinical correlations, we emphasise the diagnostic approach to delineating the origin and extent of the pulmonary vasculature.