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This study aimed to compare fruits and vegetables (FV), and carbonated soft drink (CSD) consumption among adolescents from seventy-four countries, according to macroeconomic indicators. This is an ecological study, developed with countries evaluated through the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2003–2014) and the National School Health Survey (PeNSE-Brazil, 2015). The percentages of students in each country who consumed CSD and FV daily and their association with the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Gross National Income per capita (GNIpc) were assessed. Scatter plots were constructed for each marker, and a multilevel model was tested to consider the effects of region in the associations. The overall prevalence of daily CSD consumption was 54·1 %. CSD consumption was positively associated with HDI and GNIpc through multilevel models, and Central and South America showed a considerable higher consumption compared with other regions. Overall, FV daily consumption was 67·9 % and 74·6 %, respectively, and no associations with macroeconomic indicators were found. The study shows concerning rates of CSD consumption among adolescents, and a trend of increased consumption with the improvement of the country’s development and GNIpc. This points for the importance of public policies that regulate food and beverage industries to reduce CSD consumption and related co-morbidities among adolescents.
Developing health promotion activities, aimed at healthy food intake, is essential for improving quality of life and reducing the prevalence of chronic diseases. Thus, the objective of this study is to describe both dietary and nutrient intake, according to length of participation in a health promotion service (Programa Academia da Saúde – PAS).
A cross-sectional study was carried out with a representative sample of PAS units in vulnerable areas of the city. Dietary and nutrient intake were assessed, using the average of two 24-h recalls. Food was categorised according to the NOVA (a systematic grouping of all foods according to the nature, extent and purpose of the industrial processes they undergo) classification. The length of participation in PAS is presented in months and is then examined in tertiles for analysis.
Belo Horizonte – Brazil.
3372 adults (≥20 years).
Users in the third tertile of PAS (24·4–61·6 months) experienced less energy intake, lipids and ultra-processed foods, and more culinary preparations, compared to others. Users in the second (10·1–24·3 months) and third tertiles of PAS had higher carbohydrate intake, Ca and vitamin C v those in the first tertile (0–10 months).
Results suggest that greater participation in PAS can improve dietary and nutrient intake, showing its potential to promote healthy lifestyles, prevent chronic diseases and offer longitudinal health care.
Describing the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and their association with the nutritional profiles among users of a health promotion service in a Brazilian city.
Public health promotion service of Primary Health Care in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Totally, 3372 participants.
UPF were found to contribute to 27·7 % of the diet’s total energy. The highest consumption was associated with higher values for energy intake (1561·8 v. 1331·8 kcal/d; P < 0·01), energy density (1·7 v. 1·4 kcal/g; P < 0·01), total (32·5 v. 27·3 %; P < 0·01) and trans-fats (2·1 v. 1·2 %; P < 0·01) and Na (1001·6 v. 758·9 mg/1000 kcal; P < 0·01) and with lower values for proteins (14·9 v. 19·6 %; P < 0·01), mono-unsaturated fats (16·1 v. 20·1 %; P = 0·02), n-3 (0·9 v. 1·1 %; P < 0·01) and some vitamins and minerals when comparing individuals in the last quintile of energy contribution from UPF in relation to the first one. The prevalence rate of nutrient inadequacy aimed at preventing non-communicable diseases increased between 30 % and 100 % when compared with the values of the fifth to the first quintile of UPF consumption (P < 0·001). However, the participants had lower energy intake, energy density and Na and higher fibre consumption when compared to Brazilian population.
Participants showed a high consumption of UPF, but also positive diet characteristics when compared with the national data. The results suggest the importance of health promotion services to promote healthy food and the need to include approaches to reduce UPF consumption.
The consumer food environment is changing: an extensive variety of foods are now available in most markets, offering palatability, convenience and novelty. However, little is known about the availability and advertising of food items within food outlets, especially among developing countries. The present study examined these dimensions in 281 food outlets located around eighteen primary healthcare services in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in 2013. These establishments were classified as large-chain supermarkets; specialised fruits and vegetable (F&V) markets; and local grocery stores, convenience stores or bakeries. Availability of F&V, availability of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and food advertising were compared across the food outlet categories by applying the χ2 test. Almost 60 % of the food outlets were specialised F&V markets, 21⋅4 % were large-chain supermarkets and 19⋅2 % were local grocery stores, convenience stores or bakeries. Almost 80 % contained at least eight types of fruits and vegetables, and 60 % contained UPF. Food advertisement was absent in 59⋅8 % of the food outlets, 19⋅6 % were advertising only F&V and 17⋅4 % were advertising only UPF. Higher F&V availability was noted inside specialised F&V markets and large-chain supermarkets than local grocery stores, convenience stores or bakeries. Advertising of F&V was more common within specialised F&V markets. However, large-chain supermarkets and local grocery stores, convenience stores or bakeries contained more frequent UPF food advertising isolated: 38⋅3 and 35⋅2 %, respectively. Therefore, the availability and advertising of food items within food outlets around primary healthcare services are different according to the type of food outlet.
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