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Background: Contaminated healthcare facility plumbing is increasingly recognized as a source of carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs). In August 2019, the Tennessee State Public Health Laboratory identified Tennessee’s twelfth VIM-producing carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (VIM-CRPA), from a patient in a long-term acute-care hospital. To determine a potential reservoir, the Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) reviewed healthcare exposures for all cases. Four cases (33%), including the most recent case and earliest from March 2018, had a history of admission to intensive care unit (ICU) room X at acute-care hospital A (ACH A), but the specimens were collected at other facilities. The Public Health Laboratory collaborated with ACH A to assess exposures, perform environmental sampling, and implement control measures. Methods: TDH conducted in-person infection prevention assessments with ACH A, including a review of the water management program. Initial recommendations included placing all patients admitted to room X on contact precautions, screening for CPO on room discharge, daily sink basin and counter cleaning, and other sink hygiene measures. TDH collected environmental and water samples from 5 ICU sinks (ie, the handwashing and bathroom sinks in room X and neighboring room Y [control] and 1 hallway sink) and assessed the presence of VIM-CRPA. Moreover, 5 patients and 4 environmental VIM-CRPA underwent whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Results: From February to June 2020, of 21 patients admitted to room X, 9 (43%) underwent discharge screening and 4 (44%) were colonized with VIM-CRPA. Average room X length of stay was longer for colonized patients (11.3 vs 4.8 days). Drain swabs from room X’s bathroom and handwashing sinks grew VIM-CRPA; VIM-CRPA was not detected in tap water or other swab samples. VIM-CRPA from the environment and patients were sequence type 253 and varied by 0–13 single-nucleotide variants. ACH A replaced room X’s sinks and external plumbing in July. Discharge screening and contact precautions for all patients were discontinued in November, 5 months following the last case and 12 consecutive negative patient discharge screens. Improved sink hygiene and mechanism testing for CRPA from clinical cultures continued, with no new cases identified. Conclusions: An ICU room with a persistently contaminated sink drain was a persistent reservoir of VIM-CRPA. The room X attack rate was high, with VIM-CRPA acquisition occurring in >40% of patients screened. The use of contaminated plumbing fixtures in ACH have the potential to facilitate transmission to patients but may be challenging to identify and remediate. All healthcare facilities should follow sink hygiene best practices.
Background: Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CP-CRAB) are a public health threat due to potential for widespread dissemination and limited treatment options. We describe CDC consultations for CP-CRAB to better understand transmission and identify prevention opportunities. Methods: We defined CP-CRAB as CRAB isolates with a molecular test detecting KPC, NDM, VIM, or IMP carbapenemases or a plasmid-mediated oxacillinase (OXA-23, OXA-24/40, OXA-48, OXA-58, OXA-235/237). We reviewed the CDC database of CP-CRAB consultations with health departments from January 1, 2017, through June 1, 2019. Consultations were grouped into 3 categories: multifacility clusters, single-facility clusters, and single cases. We reviewed the size, setting, environmental culturing results, and identified infection control gaps for each consultation. Results: We identified 29 consultations involving 294 patients across 19 states. Among 9 multifacility clusters, the median number of patients was 12 (range, 2–87) and the median number of facilities was 2 (range, 2–6). Among 9 single-facility clusters, the median number of patients was 5 (range, 2–50). The most common carbapenemase was OXA-23 (Table 1). Moreover, 16 consultations involved short-stay acute-care hospitals, and 6 clusters involved ICUs and/or burn units. Also, 8 consultations involved skilled nursing facilities. Environmental sampling was performed in 3 consultations; CP-CRAB was recovered from surfaces of portable, shared equipment (3 consultations), inside patient rooms (3 consultations) and nursing stations (2 consultations). Lapses in environmental cleaning and interfacility communication were common across consultations. Among 11 consultations for single CP-CRAB cases, contact screening was performed in 7 consultations and no additional CP-CRAB was identified. All 4 patients with NDM-producing CRAB reported recent international travel. Conclusions: Consultations for clusters of oxacillinase-producing CP-CRAB were most often requested in hospitals and skilled nursing facilities. Healthcare facilities and public health authorities should be vigilant for possible spread of CP-CRAB via shared equipment and the potential for CP-CRAB spread to connected healthcare facilities.
Background: Due to limited therapeutic options and potential for spread, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)-producing New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases (NDMs) are a public health priority. We investigated the epidemiology of NDM-producing CRE reported to the CDC to clarify its distribution and relative prevalence. Methods: The CDC’s Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network supports molecular testing of CRE for 5 carbapenemases nationally. Although KPC is the most common carbapenemase in the United States, non-KPC carbapenemases are a growing concern. We analyzed CRE with any of 4 non-KPC plasmid-mediated carbapenemases (NDM, VIM, IMP, or OXA-48 type) isolated from specimens collected from January 1, 2017, through June 30, 2019; only a patient’s first isolate per organism–carbapenemase combination was included. We excluded isolates from specimen sources associated with colonization screening (eg, perirectal). We compared the proportion of NDM-producing CRE to all non-KPC–producing CP-CRE between period A (January to June 2018) and period B (January to June 2019). Health departments and the CDC collected additional exposure and molecular information in selected states to better describe current NDM-producing CRE epidemiology. Results: Overall, 47 states reported 1,013 non–KPC-producing CP-CRE (range/state, 1–109 isolates; median, 11 isolates); 46 states reported 631 NDM-producing CRE (range/state, 1–84; median, 6). NDM-producing CRE increased quarterly from the third quarter of 2018 through the second quarter of 2019; CP-CRE isolates with other non-KPC carbapenemases remained stable (Fig. 1). In period A, 124 of 216 emerging CP-CRE had NDM (57.1%), compared with 255 of 359 emerging CP-CRE (71.0%) during period B (P = .1179). Among NDM-producing CRE, the proportion of Enterobacter spp increased from 10.5% in 2018 to 18.4% in 2019 (P = .0467) (Fig. 2). In total, 18 states reported more NDM-producing CRE in the first 6 months of 2019 than in all of 2018. Connecticut, Ohio, and Oregon were among states that conducted detailed investigations; these 3 states identified 24 NDM-producing CRE isolates from 23 patients in period B. Overall, 5 (21.7%) of 22 patients with history available traveled internationally ≤12 months prior to culture; 17 (73.9%) acquired NDM-producing CRE domestically. Among 15 isolates sequenced, 8 (53.3%) carried NDM-5 (6 E. coli, 1 Enterobacter spp and 1 Klebsiella spp) and 7 (46.7%) carried NDM-1 (6 Enterobacter spp and 1 Klebsiella spp). Species were diverse; no single strain type was shared by >2 isolates. Conclusions: Detection of NDM-producing CRE has increased across the AR Lab Network. Among states with detailed information available, domestic acquisition was common, and no single variant or strain predominated. Aggressive public health response and further understanding of current US NDM-CRE epidemiology are needed to prevent further spread.
Background: Carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) are a growing antibiotic resistance threat. Colonization screening can be used to identify asymptomatically colonized individuals for implementation of transmission-based precautions. Identifying high-risk patients and settings to prioritize screening recommendations can preserve facility resources. To inform screening recommendations, we analyzed CPO admission screens and screening conducted on point-prevalence surveys (PPSs) performed through the Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network’s Southeast Regional Laboratory (SE AR Lab Network). Methods: During 2017–2019, the SE AR Lab Network collected data via a REDCap survey for a subset of CPO screens on a limited set of easily determined patient risk factors. Rectal swabs were collected and tested with the Cepheid Carba-R. Specimens collected within 2 days of admission were classified as admission screening and the remainder were classified as PPS. Index cases were excluded from analyses. Odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and a value of 0.1 was used for cells with a value of zero. Results: In total, 520 screens were conducted, which included 366 admission screens at 2 facilities and 154 screens from 27 PPSs at 8 facilities. CPOs were detected in 14 (2.7%) screens, including in 10 (2.7%) admission screens and in 4 (2.6%) contacts during PPSs; carbapenemases detected were Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) (n = 12), New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) (n = 1) and Verona Integron-Encoded Metallo-β-lactamase (VIM) (n = 1). One long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) performed universal admission screening, which accounted for 96% of admission screens and all 10 CPOs detected by admission screening. Mechanical ventilation (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.4–18.0) and the presence of a tracheostomy (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.5–19.4) were associated with a positive admission screen. Moreover, 8 facilities conducted PPSs: 4 acute care hospitals, 2 long-term acute care hospitals, and 2 nursing homes. CPO prevalence in long-term acute care hospitals was 4.8% (2 of 42), 2.4% (1 of 41) in acute care hospitals, and 1.5% (1 of 69) in nursing homes. Requiring assistance with bathing (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.6–8.0) and stool incontinence (OR, 16.6; 95% CI, 13.4–19.8) were associated with a positive screen on PPSs. All 7 roommates of known cases tested negative for CPO colonization. Conclusions: Findings suggest that patients with certain easily assessed characteristics, such as mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, or stool incontinence or who require bathing assistance, may be associated with CPO positivity during screening. Further data collection and analysis of such risk factors may provide insight for the development of more targeted admission and contact screening strategies.
We analyzed clinical microbiology laboratory practices for detection of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in US short-stay acute-care hospitals using data from the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Annual Facility Survey. Half of hospitals reported testing for carbapenemases, and 1% performed routine polymyxin susceptibility testing using reference broth microdilution.
Among dialysis facilities participating in a bloodstream infection (BSI) prevention collaborative, access-related BSI incidence rate improvements observed immediately following implementation of a bundle of BSI prevention interventions were sustained for up to 4 years. Overall, BSI incidence remained unchanged from baseline in the current analysis.
Reports of bloodstream infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among chronic hemodialysis patients to 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance systems (National Healthcare Safety Network Dialysis Event and Emerging Infections Program) were compared to evaluate completeness of reporting. Many methicillin-resistant S. aureus bloodstream infections identified in hospitals were not reported to National Healthcare Safety Network Dialysis Event.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):205–207
To understand the feasibility of implementing a standardized performance measure for collecting and reporting influenza vaccination rates among healthcare personnel, qualitative, semistructured interviews were conducted with key informants in 32 healthcare facilities. Despite practical and logistical challenges to implementing the measure, respondents perceived clear benefits to its use.
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