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The Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) in England, Scotland and Wales are legally responsible for deciding if a person is medically unfit to drive. This means they need to know if a person holding a driving licence has a condition or is undergoing treatment that may now, or in the future, affect their safety as a driver. The driver is legally responsible for telling the DVLA about any such condition or treatment. Doctors should therefore alert patients to conditions and treatments that might affect their ability to drive and remind them of their duty to tell the appropriate agency. Patients with acute schizophrenia or an acute psychotic disorder must not drive and must notify the DVLA. In alliance with the above, the GMC advises that clinicians have a responsibility to explain the above information to the patient and inform them that they have a legal duty to inform the DVLA. Doctors should also inform patients that relevant medical information may need disclosing about them to the DVLA if they continue to drive against advice, and any advice given should be documented. The main objective of this audit is to identify if notification of DVLA for forensic patients living in supported accommodation, is in accordance with the DVLA guidelines.
A total of 12 residents living in community forensic supported accommodation who have a notifiable diagnosis were included. Data collection took place in September 2021, looking through all previous records relating to the search words “DVLA”, “drive”, “driving” and “license”. Data audited were from the trust's electronic patient records.
Diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia, delusional disorder and personality disorder. Antipsychotic medications included Olanzapine (oral and IM), Clozapine and Zuclopenthixol +/- antidepressants. Legal status included community treatment orders (civil section), voluntary community patients and those on a conditionally discharged restriction under secretary of State supervision. Two patients held full driving licences and a further two held provisional licences, with DVLA documented discussions and notification compliance at 100%. The remaining eight patients had no documentation regarding driving nor DVLA discussions or notification.
This audit found that DVLA discussions are not currently well documented, with only four patient records that have this recorded. Although it is the clinical team's responsibility to advise the patient to notify the DVLA, it is ultimately the patient's responsibility to notify the DVLA themselves. DVLA discussions need to be had regardless of driving status and documentation should reflect this.
Background: The epidemic NAP1/027 Clostridioides difficile strain (MLST1, ST1) that emerged in the mid-2000 is on the decline. The current distribution of C. difficile strain types and their transmission dynamics are poorly defined. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of C. difficile isolates in 2 regions to identify the predominant multilocus sequence types (MLSTs) in community- and healthcare-associated cases and potential transmission between cases using whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Methods: Isolates were collected through the CDC Emerging Infections Program population-based surveillance for C. difficile infections (CDI) for 3 months between 2016 and 2017 in 5 Minnesota counties and 1 New York county. Isolates were limited to incident cases (CDI in a county resident with no positive C. difficile test in the preceding 8 weeks). Cases were classified as healthcare associated (HA-CDI) or community associated (CA-CDI) based on healthcare exposures as previously described. WGS was performed on an Illumina Miseq. The CFSAN (FDA) pipeline was used to compute whole-genome SNPs, SPAdes was used for assembly, and MLST was assigned according to www.pubmlst.org. Results: Of 431 isolates, 269 originated from New York and 162 from Minnesota; 203 cases were classified as CA-CDI and 221 as HA-CDI. The proportion of CA-CDI cases was higher in Minnesota than in New York: 62% vs 38%. The predominant MLSTs across both sites were ST42 (9%), ST8 (8%), and ST2 (8%). MLSTs more frequently encountered in HA-CDI than CA-CDI included ST1 (note that this ST includes PCR Ribotype 027; 76% HA-CDI), ST53 (84% HA-CDI), and ST43 (80% HA-CDI). In contrast, ST110 (63% CA-CDI) and ST3 (67% CA-CDI) were more commonly isolated from CA-CDI cases. ST1 accounted for 7.6% of circulating strains and was more common in New York than Minnesota (10% vs 3%) and was concentrated among New York HA-CDI cases. Also, 412 isolates (1 per patient) were included in the final whole-genome SNP analysis. Of these, only 12 pairs were separated by 0–3 SNPs, indicating potential transmission, and most involved HA-CDI cases. ST1, ST17, and ST46 accounted for 8 of 12 pairs, with ST17 and ST46 potentially forming small clusters. Conclusions: This analysis provides a snapshot of the current genomic epidemiology of C. difficile across 2 geographically and epidemiologically distinct regions of the United States and supports other studies suggesting that the role of direct transmission in the spread of CDI may be limited.
Hurricane Harvey left a path of destruction in its wake, resulting in over 100 deaths and damaging critical infrastructure. During a disaster, public health surveillance is necessary to track emerging illnesses and injuries, identify at-risk populations, and assess the effectiveness of response efforts. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American Red Cross collaborate on shelter surveillance to monitor the health of the sheltered population and help guide response efforts.
We analyzed data collected from 24 Red Cross shelters between August 25, 2017, and September 14, 2017. We described the aggregate morbidity data collected during Harvey compared with previous hurricanes (Gustav, Ike, and Sandy).
Over one-third (38%) of reasons for visit were for health care maintenance; 33% for acute illnesses, which includes respiratory conditions, gastrointestinal symptoms, and pain; 19% for exacerbation of chronic disease; 7% for mental health; and 4% for injury. The Red Cross treated 41% of clients within the shelters; however, reporting of disposition was often missed. These results are comparable to previous hurricanes.
The capacity of Red Cross shelter staff to address the acute health needs of shelter residents is a critical resource for local public health agencies overwhelmed by the disaster. However, there remains room for improvement because reporting remained inconsistent.
During the past two decades, it has been amply documented that neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) disproportionately account for burden of illness attributable to chronic non-communicable medical disorders globally. It is also likely that human capital costs attributable to NPDs will disproportionately increase as a consequence of population aging and beneficial risk factor modification of other common and chronic medical disorders (e.g., cardiovascular disease). Notwithstanding the availability of multiple modalities of antidepressant treatment, relatively few studies in psychiatry have primarily sought to determine whether improving cognitive function in MDD improves patient reported outcomes (PROs) and/or is cost effective. The mediational relevance of cognition in MDD potentially extrapolates to all NPDs, indicating that screening for, measuring, preventing, and treating cognitive deficits in psychiatry is not only a primary therapeutic target, but also should be conceptualized as a transdiagnostic domain to be considered regardless of patient age and/or differential diagnosis.
To (i) describe the proportion of foods and beverages available on school canteen menus classified as having high (‘green’), moderate (‘amber’) or low (‘red’) nutritional value; (ii) describe the proportion of these items purchased by students; and (iii) examine the association between food and beverage availability on school canteen menus and food and beverage purchasing by students.
A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a larger randomised controlled trial (RCT).
A nested sample of fifty randomly selected government schools from the Hunter New England region of New South Wales, Australia, who had participated in an RCT of an intervention to improve the availability of healthy foods sold from school canteens, was approached to participate.
School principals, canteen managers and students.
The average proportion of green, amber and red items available on menus was 47·9, 47·4 and 4·7 %, respectively. The average proportion of green, amber and red items purchased by students was 30·1, 61·8 and 8·1 %, respectively. There was a significant positive relationship between the availability and purchasing of green (R2=0·66), amber (R2=0·57) and red menu items (R2=0·61). In each case, a 1 % increase in the availability of items in these categories was associated with a 1·21, 1·35 and 1·67 % increase in purchasing of items of high, moderate and low nutritional value, respectively.
The findings provide support for school-based policies to improve the relative availability of healthy foods for sale in these settings.
Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare condition because of the deletion of paternal chromosomal material (del PWS), or a maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD PWS), at 15q11-13. Affective psychosis is more prevalent in mUPD PWS. We investigated the relationship between the two PWS genetic variants and brain-stem serotonin transporter (5-HTT) availability in adult humans. Mean brain-stem 5-HTT availability determined by [123I]-beta-CIT single photon emission tomography was lower in eight adults with mUPD PWS compared with nine adults with del PWS (mean difference −0.93, t = −2.85, P = 0.014). Our findings confirm an association between PWS genotype and brain-stem 5-HTT availability, implicating a maternally expressed/paternally imprinted gene, that is likely to account for the difference in psychiatric phenotypes between the PWS variants.
Urban ethnic minority youth are often exposed to high levels of aggression and violence. As such, many aggression intervention programs that have been designed with suburban nonethnic minority youth have been used or slightly adapted in order to try and meet the needs of high-risk urban youth. The current study contributes to the literature base by examining how well a range of social–cognitive, emotional distress and victimization, and prosocial factors are related to youth aggression in a sample of urban youth. This study utilized data gathered from 109 9- to 15-year-old youth (36.7% male; 84.4% African American) and their parents or caregivers. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were fit predicting youth aggression from social–cognitive variables, victimization and distress, and prosocial variables, controlling for youth gender and age. Each set of variables explained a significant and unique amount of the variance in youth aggressive behavior. The full model including all predictors accounted for 41% of the variance in aggression. Models suggest that youth with stronger beliefs supportive of violence, youth who experience more overt victimization, and youth who experience greater distress in overtly aggressive situations are likely to be more aggressive. In contrast, youth with higher self-esteem and youth who endorse greater leadership efficacy are likely to be less aggressive. Contrary to hypotheses, hostile attributional bias and knowledge of social information processing, experience of relational victimization, distress in relationally aggressive situations, and community engagement were not associated with aggression. Our study is one of the first to address these important questions for low-income, predominately ethnic minority urban youth, and it has clear implications for adapting aggression prevention programs to be culturally sensitive for urban African American youth.
What are the advantages of equipping a wooden arrow with stone, rather than just using the sharpened wooden tip? Very few it seems. In a series of well-controlled experiments the authors show that stone arrow-heads achieve barely 10 per cent extra penetration over wood. They then raise some pertinent ideas about the other advantages, social and symbolic that may have driven hunters the world over to adopt the stone tip.
This paper applies the approach developed by the congnitive sciences to a classical field of social anthropology—i.e., the analysis of represetations and behaviors relative to misfortune in “traditional” societies.
The initial argument is that the conceptual division and the modes of description and explanation of anthropology suffer from serious weaknesses: these concepts cannot serve to understand empirical phenomena (utterances and/or behavior); they rely on a confused and erroneous conception of the different domains involved and the causalities between them; and they use simplistic hypotheses about the existence and causal status of the entities that usually form the ultima ratio of anthropological reasoning (e.g., lineage organization, ancestors, witchcraft, etc.). These entities would directly “cause” other individual representations or behaviors. This simplification also affects the analysis of states of belief in these entities, to which individuals would supposedly “adhere”.
I argue here that the cognitivist approach, within a “methodological individualism” framework, provides a more adequate description of phenomena observed in the field. This enables the various levels and domains to be more finely defined. The analysis of “typical” utterances and inferences in a “tranditional” society, the Senufo of the Ivory Coast, is here used to clarify these anthropological problems. Two levels can be distinguished: (1) a priori representations, which are underdetermined, enabling them to occur within valid inferences; (2) perception and/or action, which obeys different cognitive constraints. The existential status of unobservable entities appearing in causal inferences is not equivalent (“symmetrical”) depending on whether they are determined as antecedent or consequent.
This paper suggests a theory of interpretive processes and beliefs having flexible references, because they are incomplete and domain-specific. It allows a comparison with facts observed in Western societies. It is also in contrast to the ordinary conception of religious states of belief — i.e., these states would be purely psychological, states of “adherence,” collective, autonomous, obligatory, part of a systemized set of knowledge; collective notions (of God, church, etc.) would here logically precede individual representations.