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Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the cause of tuberculosis (TB), a granulomatous illness that mostly affects the lungs. Pakistan is one of the eight nations that accounts for two-thirds of all new cases of developing TB. TB has long been an endemic disease in Pakistan. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, the nation has over 500 000 incident TB infections per year, with a rising number of drug-resistant cases. Recently, the coexistence of COVID-19 and TB in Pakistan has provided doctors with a problem. Fever or chills, cough, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing are all signs of COVID-19. After SARS-CoV-2 infection, cough might persist for weeks or months and it is frequently accompanied by persistent tiredness, cognitive impairment, dyspnoea or pain – a group of long-term consequences known as post-COVID syndrome or protracted COVID. Coughing with mucus or blood, and coughing that continues over 2 months are indications of TB. The same clinical presentation features make it difficult for healthcare personnel to effectively evaluate the illness and prevent the spread of these fatal diseases. Pakistan lacks the necessary healthcare resources to tackle two contagious diseases at the same time. To counteract the sudden increase in TB cases, appropriate management and effective policies must be implemented. Thus, in order to prevent the spread of these infectious diseases, it is critical to recognise and address the problems that the healthcare sector faces, as well as to create an atmosphere in which the healthcare sector can function at its full potential.
The recommended daily dose of vitamin D is 2000 IU was found to be insufficient in many patients. The objective of the present study is to find whether the daily dose of vitamin D should be based on BMI. Two hundred and thirty patients with an established vitamin D deficiency (serum level of 25 Hydroxy vitamin D3 (25OHD3) of ≤20 ng/ml) and patients with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were included in the study. Demographic data, comorbidities and BMI were recorded. Pre-treatment and post-treatment serum 25OHD3, calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were tested at 0-, 3- and 6-month periods. Patients were treated with a standard dose of 50 000 IU of vitamin D weekly and 600/1200 mg of calcium a day. Once their level of 25OHD3 reached ≥30 ng/ml, patients were randomised into two groups. Group A received a standard recommended maintenance dose of 2000 IU daily and Group B patients received 125 IU/kg/m2 of vitamin D3. The data were entered in the database and analysed. The mean age of Group A was 50⋅74 ± 7⋅64 years compared to 52⋅32 ± 7⋅21 years in Group B. In both groups, pre-treatment vitamin D level was ≤15 ng/ml and increased to 34⋅6 ± 2⋅6 and 33⋅7 ± 2⋅4 ng/ml at the end of 3 months treatment with a dose 50 000 IU of vitamin D3 and calcium 600/1200 mg once a day for group A and group B, respectively. At 6 months, patients in Group A 25OHD3 level was 22⋅8 ± 3⋅80 and in Group B was 34⋅0 ± 1⋅85 ng/ml (P < 0⋅001). This preliminary study suggests that obese patients need higher dosage of vitamin D than the recommended dose. It is prudent that the dosage should be based on the BMI to maintain normal levels for a healthy musculoskeletal system.
Malnutrition among adolescents is often associated with inadequate dietary diversity (DD). We aimed to explore the prevalence of inadequate DD and its socio-economic determinants among adolescent girls and boys in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during the 2018–19 round of national nutrition surveillance in Bangladesh. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify the determinants of inadequate DD among adolescent girls and boys separately. This population-based survey covered eighty-two rural, non-slum urban and slum clusters from all divisions of Bangladesh. A total of 4865 adolescent girls and 4907 adolescent boys were interviewed. The overall prevalence of inadequate DD was higher among girls (55⋅4 %) than the boys (50⋅6 %). Moreover, compared to boys, the prevalence of inadequate DD was higher among the girls for almost all socio-economic categories. Poor educational attainment, poor maternal education, female-headed household, household food insecurity and poor household wealth were associated with increased chances of having inadequate DD in both sexes. In conclusion, more than half of the Bangladeshi adolescent girls and boys consumed an inadequately diversified diet. The socio-economic determinants of inadequate DD should be addressed through context-specific multisectoral interventions.
The interaction between chalcopyrite and illite particles was analysed using ζ-potential measurements and flotation tests. Statistically designed tests were used to examine the factors controlling flotation (frother concentration, dispersant concentration, froth height, airflow rate and amount of clay). Furthermore, the significance levels of the impacts of these factors on responses (chalcopyrite grade/recovery, pyrite grade/recovery, dynamic froth stability and mean bubble diameter) were determined. Chalcopyrite and pyrite ζ-potentials were measured in the presence of illite. The addition of 15% illite to the chalcopyrite, especially between pH 11 and 12, shifted the ζ-potential values closer to that of pure illite, indicating complete surface coating of chalcopyrite with illite. In the flotation experiments, better results were obtained in terms of chalcopyrite grade at a low airflow rate and a high froth height. With increasing froth height there was a decline in the gangue mineral recovery as the residence time of the froth increased. The most significant factor increasing pyrite recovery was the amount of clay. Although illite is considered to be the least problematic clay mineral for flotation, as reported in the literature, an illite content of as low as 5% in the ore decreased chalcopyrite grade by 3.83%. While K and Na contents of 4% were detected after flotation without the addition of illite, their abundance increased to 5.7% after the addition of illite.
In this study, we assessed the acute changes in biventricular longitudinal strain after atrial septal defect transcatheter closure and its relation to the device size.
Hundred atrial septal defect patients and 40 age-matched controls were included. Echocardiography and strain study were performed at baseline and 24 hours and 1 month after the intervention. The study group was divided into two subgroups; group 1: smaller devices were used (mean device size = 1.61 ± 0.05 cm, n = 74) and group 2: larger devices were used (mean device size = 2.95 ± 0.07 cm, n = 26).
At baseline, there was a significant difference between the study group and controls as regards right ventricular global longitudinal strain with significant hyperkinetic apex (p = 0.033, p = 0.020, respectively). There was a significant immediate reduction in right ventricular global longitudinal strain (from −24.43 ± 0.49% to −21.62 ± 0.47%, p < 0.001), which showed insignificant improvement after 1-month follow-up. While only left ventricular global longitudinal strain increased after 1 month. Within 24 hours of device closure, all the basal- and mid-lateral segments strains and apical right ventricular strains showed a significant reduction. There was a significant negative correlation between the indexed large device size and an immediate change in the right ventricular global longitudinal strain (r = −0.425, p = 0.034).
Significant right ventricular global longitudinal strain reduction starts as early as 24 hours after transcatheter closure, irrespective of the device size used. The rapid impact of closure was mainly on the biventricular basal and lateral segments and right ventricular apical ones, especially with the large sized atrial septal defect.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Understanding the evolution of the virus, and immune-pathogenic processes are critical for designing future therapeutic interventions. In this review, we collate information on the structure, genome, viral life cycle, and adult and pediatric host immune responses in response to SARS-CoV-2. The immunological responses are a prototype of the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis to explain the socio-geographic differences impacting the severity and mortality rates in SARS-CoV-2 infections. The DOHaD hypothesis identifies the relevance of trained innate immunity, age groups, and geography for effective vaccinations. As COVID-19 vaccines are being rolled out, it may be pertinent to assess population-based immunological responses to understand the effectiveness and safety across different populations and age groups.
The World Health Organization set a target of a 15% relative reduction in the prevalence of insufficient physical activity (IPA) by 2025 among adolescents and adults globally. In Bangladesh, there are no national estimates of the prevalence of IPA among adolescents. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of and risk factors associated with IPA among adolescent girls and boys. Data for 4865 adolescent girls and 4907 adolescent boys, collected as a part of a National Nutrition Surveillance in 2018–19, were analysed for this study. A modified version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to collect physical activity data. The World Health Organization recommended cut-off points were used to estimate the prevalence of IPA. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with IPA. Prevalences of IPA among adolescent girls and boys were 50.3% and 29.0%, respectively, and the prevalence was significantly higher among early adolescents (10–14 years) than late adolescents (15–19 years) among both boys and girls. The IPA prevalence was highest among adolescents living in non-slum urban areas (girls: 77.7%; boys: 64.1%). For both boys and girls, younger age, non-slum urban residence, higher paternal education and increased television viewing time were significantly associated with IPA. Additionally, residing in slums was significantly associated with IPA only among the boys. Higher maternal education was associated with IPA only among the girls. This study identified several modifiable risk factors associated with IPA among adolescent boys and girls in Bangladesh. These factors should be addressed through comprehensive public health interventions to promote physical activity among adolescent girls and boys.
There are a few number of case reports and small-scale case series reporting dilated cardiomyopathy due to vitamin D-deficient rickets. The present study evaluates the clinical, biochemical, and echocardiographic features of neonates with vitamin D deficiency.
Patients and methods:
In this prospective single-arm observational study, echocardiographic evaluation was performed on all patients before vitamin D3 and calcium replacement. Following remission of biochemical features of vitamin D deficiency, control echocardiography was performed. Biochemical and echocardiographic characteristics of the present cohort were compared with those of 27 previously published cases with dilated cardiomyopathy due to vitamin D deficiency.
The study included 148 cases (95 males). In the echocardiographic evaluation, none of the patients had dilated cardiomyopathy. All of the mothers were also vitamin D deficient and treated accordingly. Comparison of patients with normocalcaemia and hypocalcaemia at presentation revealed no statistically significant difference between the ejection fraction and shortening fraction, while left ventricle end-diastolic diameter and left ventricle end-systolic diameter were higher in patients with hypocalcaemia. Previously published historical cases were older and had more severe biochemical features of vitamin D deficiency.
To the best of our knowledge, in this first and largest cohort of neonates with vitamin D deficiency, we did not detect dilated cardiomyopathy. Early recognition and detection before developing actual rickets and preventing prolonged hypocalcaemia are critically important to alleviate cardiac complications.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread globally, forcing countries to apply lockdowns and strict social distancing measures. The aim of this study was to assess eating habits and lifestyle behaviours among residents of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region during the lockdown. A cross-sectional study among adult residents of the MENA region was conducted using an online questionnaire designed on Google Forms during April 2020. A total of 2970 participants from eighteen countries participated in the present study. During the pandemic, over 30 % reported weight gain, 6·2 % consumed five or more meals per d compared with 2·2 % before the pandemic (P < 0·001) and 48·8 % did not consume fruits on a daily basis. Moreover, 39·1 % did not engage in physical activity, and over 35 % spent more than 5 h/d on screens. A significant association between the frequency of training during the pandemic and the reported change in weight was found (P < 0·001). A significantly higher percentage of participants reported physical and emotional exhaustion, irritability and tension either all the time or a large part of the time during the pandemic (P < 0·001). Although a high percentage of participants reported sleeping more hours per night during the pandemic, 63 % had sleep disturbances. The study highlights that the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic caused a variety of lifestyle changes, physical inactivity and psychological problems among adults in the MENA region.
Deaths due to opioid overdose have reached unprecedented levels in Canada; over 12,800 opioid-related deaths occurred between January 2016 and March 2019, and overdose death rates increased by approximately 50% from 2016 to 2018.1 In 2016, Health Canada declared the opioid epidemic a national public health crisis,2 and life expectancy increases have halted in Canada for the first time in decades.3 Children are not exempt from this crisis, and the Chief Public Health Officer of Canada has recently prioritized the prevention of problematic substance use among Canadian youth.4
This article reports the establishment of an isolated, fully functional field intensive care unit (FICU) unit equipped with all necessary critical care facilities as a part of the national pre-emptive preparedness to treat an unexpected surge outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in Bahrain. One floor of an existing car parking structure was converted into a 130-bed FICU set-up by the in-house project implementation team comprised of multidisciplinary departments. The setting was a military hospital in the Kingdom of Bahrain, and the car park was on the hospital premises. The FICU contained a 112-bed fully equipped ICU and an 18-bed step-down ICU, and was built in 7 d to cater to the intensive care of COVID-19 patients in Bahrain.
Over the last decades, acupuncture has been seen as an acceptable primary detoxification treatment for opiate dependence, and currently used to relieve the severity of opiate withdrawal symptoms among MMT patient.
To investigate the effectiveness of electroacupuncture treatment in reducing opiate withdrawal symptoms among MMT patient.
This was a pilot study with randomized, single-blinded, and parallel. Recruitment of 22 subjects, 11 in methadone treatment + acupuncture and 11 in methadone treatment without acupuncture. The severity of withdrawal reaction was assessed by Objective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (OOWS) and Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS) at baseline, third, fifth, seventh, tenth and fourteenth day of treatment.
One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) comparing the mean scores of the OOWS between treatment and control group has shown at tenth day of treatment p value is 0.026 and at fourteenth day p value is 0.022. One way ANOVA comparing the mean scores of the SOWS between treatment and control groups has shown at tenth day of treatment, p value is 0.015 and at fourteenth day, p value is 0.009.
The study has shown the promising results, where electroacupuncture treatment had an effectiveness in relieving opiate withdrawal symptoms among MMT patient.
High prevalence of poor sleep quality has been reported among Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) patients. in order to reduce side effects and prevent relapse, new treatment approaches should be considered and recently, electroacupuncture (EA) has believed to have a therapeutic effect in the treatment of drug addiction.
To investigate the effects of EA on sleep quality in patients receiving MMT.
A prospective, open-labelled, parallel, randomized-controlled trial was conducted among MMT patients in Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 22 drug misusers who met DSM-IV were randomly assigned into two groups. The treatment group was given methadone plus EA stimulation at 1.1+80Hz while the control group received methadone plus Sham EA without increasing the intensity of the stimulation. Both groups received the EA treatment 30 minutes per session for 14 days. Sleep quality was assessed by validated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index.
In terms of pre and post treatment comparison, we found that there were significant difference of mean sleep latency (p= 0.011), use of medication (p= 0.043) and global PSQI (p= 0.009) for the treatment group. However, only sleep efficiency (p= 0.014) showed a significant difference between pre and post treatment for the control group. in terms of group comparison, we found that there was significant difference of mean sleep latency (p= 0.004), sleep efficiency (0.004) and global PSQI (0.008) for post treatment. No significant difference was found for pre treatment.
Electroacupuncture may have adjunct effect on sleep improvement and have potential to reduce Benzodiazepine use among MMT patients.
The “problem of memory” in epistemology is concerned with whether and how we could have knowledge, or at least justification, for trusting our apparent memories. I defend an inductive solution – more precisely, an abductive solution – to the problem. A natural worry is that any such solution would be circular, for it would have to depend on memory. I argue that belief in the reliability of memory can be justified from the armchair, without relying on memory. The justification is, roughly, that my having the sort of experience that my apparent memory should lead me to expect is best explained by the hypothesis that my memories are reliable. My solution is inspired by Harrod's (1942) inductive solution. Coburn (1960) argued that Harrod's solution contains a fatal flaw. I show that my solution is not vulnerable to Coburn's objection, and respond to a number of other, recent and likely objections.
The aim of this study is to determine early changes in cardiac function of children with chronic kidney disease by using 2D-speckle tracking echocardiography.
The study included 38 children – 16 girls and 22 boys – diagnosed as having chronic kidney disease in the nephrology department with a glomerular filtration rate of <90 ml/minute/1.73 m2 for at least 3 months. A total of 37 – 15 girls and 22 boys – age- and sex-matched healthy children were included as the control group. 2D-Speckle tracking echocardiography was performed in all subjects.
The mean age was 13.45±2.8 years in patients and 12.89±3.07 years in controls. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures and left ventricular mass index were significantly higher in patients (p<0.05). The values of mitral e, mitral a, mitral e/a ratio, and mitral deceleration time were not different between the groups. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion values were lower in patients (p<0.01). Global strain values in apical long-axis 3-chamber and 2-chamber views were significantly lower in patients (p<0.05). Longitudinal, radial, and circumferential peak systolic strain values were lower in patients, but the difference was statistically significant in all segments of longitudinal view and basal segment of circumferential view (p<0.05). Radial and circumferential systolic strain rates were significantly lower in patients in all three segments (p<0.05). Moreover, early diastolic strain rate was significantly lower in longitudinal and radial apical segments and in all segments of circumferential measurements in patients. Besides, strain rate e/a ratio was significantly lower in all longitudinal segments of patients (p=0.01).
The study concluded that 2D-speckle tracking echocardiography method can determine cardiac involvement earlier than conventional echocardiography in children with chronic kidney disease having preserved ejection fraction.
One of the most important measures following disasters is setting up a communicable disease surveillance system (CDSS). This study aimed to develop indicators to assess the performance of CDSSs in disasters.
In this 3-phase study, firstly a qualitative study was conducted through in-depth, semistructured interviews with experts on health in disasters and emergencies, health services managers, and communicable diseases center specialists. The interviews were analyzed, and CDSS performance assessment (PA) indicators were extracted. The appropriateness of these indicators was examined through a questionnaire administered to experts and heads of communicable diseases departments of medical sciences universities. Finally, the designed indicators were weighted using the analytic hierarchy process approach and Expert Choice software.
In this study, 51 indicators were designed, of which 10 were related to the input (19.61%), 17 to the process (33.33%), 13 to the product (25.49%), and 11 to the outcome (21.57%). In weighting, the maximum score was that of input (49.1), and the scores of the process, product, and outcome were 31.4, 12.7, and 6.8, respectively.
Through 3 different phases, PA indicators for 4 phases of a chain of results were developed. The authors believe that these PA indicators can assess the system’s performance and its achievements in response to disasters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:158–164)
We present the findings about chromospheric activity nature of KOI-256 obtained from the Kepler Mission data. First, it was found that there are some sinusoidal variations out-of-eclipses due to cool spot activity. The sinusoidal variations modelled by the spotmodel program indicate that the active component has two different active regions. Their longitudinal variation revealed that one of them has a migration period of 3.95 yrs, while the other has a migration period of 8.37 yrs. Second, 225 flares were detected from the short cadence data in total. The parameters, such as increase (Tr) and decay (Td) times, total flare time (Tt), equivalent durations (P), were calculated for each flare. The distribution of equivalent durations versus total flare times in logarithmic scale is modelled to find flare activity level. The Plateau value known as the saturation level of the active component was calculated to be 2.3121 ± 0.0964 s, and the Half-life value, which is required flare total time to reach the saturation, was computed to be 2233.6 s. In addition, the frequency of N1, which is the number of flares per an hour in the system, was found to be 0.05087 h−1, while the flare frequency N2 that the flare-equivalent duration emitting per an hour was found to be 0.00051. Contrary to the spot activity, it has been found that the flares are in tends to appear at specific phases due to the white dwarf component.
Dendritic cells (DC) are central regulators of immune responses and professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with the unique ability to induce both innate immune responses and a highly specific acquired immunity. DC communicates through chemical and mechanical signals in the initiation and maintenance of immune responses. DC forms immunological synapses with T-cells thus pulling T-cells strings and leading to activation of T-cells. Owing to their properties, DC are often called ‘nature's adjuvants’ and thus have become an important component of any vaccination strategy. Coccidiosis is a major intestinal disease caused by Eimeria spp., affecting economically valuable livestock animals such as chickens and turkeys. Economic losses are associated with decreased productivity in afflicted poultry. Vaccination strategies involving DC have been developed owing to the special properties of these cells in coordinating innate and adaptive immune responses. Vaccination of chickens with exosomes isolated from DC containing parasite antigens (Ags) represents a promising alternative strategy to control avian coccidiosis. In recent years, emergence of new chicken DC has opened a new horizon for the development of new vaccines and DC derived vaccine could be a possible strategy to control coccidiosis in field. This review summarises the current state of knowledge of DC and their specific functions in immunity against avian coccidiosis.