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The possibility of identifying the type of multipath environment and receiver motion (e.g. pedestrian, vehicular) using pattern recognition approaches based on multipath parameters is investigated. This allows the receiver to adjust its tracking strategy and optimally tune its tracking parameters to mitigate code multipath effects. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification method with a modified Gaussian kernel is applied in this approach. A set of temporal and spectral features is extracted from the correlation samples of the received signals in different environments to train the classifier. The latter is then used in the structure of stochastic gradient-based adaptive multipath compensation and tracking techniques to tune the signal tracking parameters based on the environment and receiver motion. Simulation and real data measurements using Galileo E1B/C signals are performed to assess the validity of the proposed environment identification approaches and to evaluate the impact of the proposed context-based receiver parameter tuning techniques on tracking performance in multipath environments. Test results showed that the proposed classifiers have an accuracy between 86% and 92%, and the tracking performance improved by about 15%.
Multipath propagation can cause significant impairments to the performance of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers and is often the dominant source of accuracy degradation for high precision GNSS applications. Commonly used time-of-arrival estimation techniques cannot provide the required estimation accuracy in severely dense multipath environments such as urban canyons. Multipath components are highly correlated and this results in a rank deficiency of the signal autocorrelation matrix. In this paper the Doppler spectrum broadening of the fast fading channel resulting from the motion of the receiver or surrounding objects is employed to decorrelate signal reflections for the purpose of high-resolution estimation of multipath delays through the subspace-based Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) technique. Specifically, delay-domain correlator outputs at different Doppler frequencies are combined to enhance the rank of the signal autocorrelation matrix. Simulation and results of real data collected in an urban environment (downtown Calgary) are presented to compare the performance of the proposed method with the spatial-temporal-diversity-based MUSIC technique and a widely available algorithm in commercial GNSS receivers, namely the double-delta correlator technique. The performance metrics are based upon pseudorange and positioning errors, which are derived using an accurate reference trajectory established using a high precision GNSS-INS integrated system.
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Doppler measurements are commonly used for velocity-based relative positioning and aiding Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) in signal degraded environments. The aim of this paper is to characterise the Doppler measurements in GNSS harsh multipath environments. In multipath fading situations such as indoor and urban canyon environments, multipath components arrive to the receiver antenna from different paths and directions. These give rise to various Doppler shifts that cause errors in the velocity solution. In this work the Doppler measurements discrepancy characterised by Doppler spread in multipath environments is investigated. By assuming a ‘sphere of scatterers’ model and considering the antenna gain pattern, the theoretical Power Spectral Density (PSD) observed by a receiver is formulated. The theoretical findings are examined using two sets of measurements in dense multipath environments. Global Positioning System (GPS) live signals using non-isotropic antennas with different orientations are used for this purpose. Different motion directions are also examined using different data sets. An Assisted GPS (A-GPS) approach is utilised where the code phase and the navigation data bits are provided by a nearby outdoor antenna. By applying a ‘Block Processing’ technique, an epoch-by-epoch Doppler and velocity estimation is implemented. Herein, the Doppler and velocity measurements accuracy in addition to the Doppler spread characterization are studied. As shown both theoretically and experimentally, in harsh multipath environments the PSD of the observed signals is a function of the scatterers' geometry and the antenna gain pattern. The Doppler estimation accuracies in multipath and multipath-free cases are compared for different ranges of Carrier-to-Noise ratio (C/N0). Theoretical and experimental results revealed inaccurate Doppler estimation and poor Doppler-derived velocity solutions in dense multipath environments.
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