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Historically, alloy development with better radiation performance has been focused on traditional alloys with one or two principal element(s) and minor alloying elements, where enhanced radiation resistance depends on microstructural or nanoscale features to mitigate displacement damage. In sharp contrast to traditional alloys, recent advances of single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys (SP-CSAs) have opened up new frontiers in materials research. In these alloys, a random arrangement of multiple elemental species on a crystalline lattice results in disordered local chemical environments and unique site-to-site lattice distortions. Based on closely integrated computational and experimental studies using a novel set of SP-CSAs in a face-centered cubic structure, we have explicitly demonstrated that increasing chemical disorder can lead to a substantial reduction in electron mean free paths, as well as electrical and thermal conductivity, which results in slower heat dissipation in SP-CSAs. The chemical disorder also has a significant impact on defect evolution under ion irradiation. Considerable improvement in radiation resistance is observed with increasing chemical disorder at electronic and atomic levels. The insights into defect dynamics may provide a basis for understanding elemental effects on evolution of radiation damage in irradiated materials and may inspire new design principles of radiation-tolerant structural alloys for advanced energy systems.
Spectroscopy technique is used for various applications, for example in archaeology, in order to analyze samples of floors, including material excavation sites. In this work the floor samples that were found in two rooms belonging to a house in a residential Hispanic area, at different stratigraphic levels corresponding to the classical period, as well as samples that were collected in two deposits of lime (El Refugio and El Llano) around the site mentioned were analyzed. The characterization of the samples of the archaeological site Chingú in Tula de Allende in the state of Hidalgo was carried out by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to observe the morphology of the samples and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) to analyze the composition of cementitious material of the floors and natural material of lime deposits. Comparing these samples with other archaeological works of literature, the morphology and composition of manufactured floors will be discussed.
To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome.
Population-based cross-sectional study. The K-means clustering method was used to identify dietary patterns and logistic regression models were used to compare the adjusted prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome factors, stratifying by obesity status.
The 1992–3 Italian Bollate Eye Study, a population-based survey carried out in the town of Bollate (Milan), Italy.
A total of 1052 non-diabetic Italian subjects, 527 men and 525 women, aged 42–74 years.
Five dietary clusters were identified: common, animal products, starch, vegetal/fat and vitamin/fibre. After adjusting for potential confounders, the starch group showed the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (36 %) followed by the animal products group (30 %); the vitamin/fibre (20 %) and vegetal/fat groups (19 %) showed the lowest prevalence. The starch group had more dyslipidaemia (higher TAG and lower HDL cholesterol levels) and the animal products group had a higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose. The vitamin/fibre group had the lowest prevalence of abdominal obesity. The beneficial effect of the vegetal/fat and vitamin/fibre dietary patterns seemed stronger among the obese.
Our results confirm the deleterious effect of a very-low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet and also of high intakes of animal products. The consumption of a diet high in vegetal fats or rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a healthier metabolic profile. Reducing obesity is essential to prevent metabolic syndrome, but even among the obese dietary habits are important for preserving healthy lipid and glycaemic profiles.
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