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This systematic literature review aimed to provide an overview of the characteristics and methods used in studies applying the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) concept for infectious diseases within European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA)/European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries and the United Kingdom. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched for articles reporting the assessment of DALY and its components. We considered studies in which researchers performed DALY calculations using primary epidemiological data input sources. We screened 3053 studies of which 2948 were excluded and 105 studies met our inclusion criteria. Of these studies, 22 were multi-country and 83 were single-country studies, of which 46 were from the Netherlands. Food- and water-borne diseases were the most frequently studied infectious diseases. Between 2015 and 2022, the number of burden of infectious disease studies was 1.6 times higher compared to that published between 2000 and 2014. Almost all studies (97%) estimated DALYs based on the incidence- and pathogen-based approach and without social weighting functions; however, there was less methodological consensus with regards to the disability weights and life tables that were applied. The number of burden of infectious disease studies undertaken across Europe has increased over time. Development and use of guidelines will promote performing burden of infectious disease studies and facilitate comparability of the results.
Forest fragmentation can alter herbivory on tree recruits with possible consequences for regeneration. We assessed effects of forest-fragment quality (tree diversity, vegetation complexity, relative abundance of pioneer trees) and matrix habitat on arthropods and herbivory in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We compared arthropod abundances and herbivory on woody seedlings and saplings among four forest-fragment types differing in size and matrix (large fragments and small fragments surrounded by natural grassland, eucalypt and sugarcane plantations; nplots = 24) using analyses of covariance. We recorded 3385 arthropods and inspected 897 seedlings (71 species) and 876 saplings (91 species). Relative abundance of predators increased with fragment quality; that of herbivores decreased. Herbivory responses to fragment quality varied: seedling herbivory decreased with relative abundance of pioneers and sapling herbivory increased with vegetation complexity. Matrix effects were low with little variation in relative abundance of predators (0.39–0.53) and herbivores (0.22–0.32), proportion of seedling (8.3–11.0%) and sapling herbivory (12.4–14.3%) among the forest-fragment types. These findings indicate that herbivory on tree recruits is mediated by forest-fragment quality rather than matrix habitat. Future studies should evaluate whether contrasting effects of fragment quality on arthropods and herbivory are caused by weak trophic interactions and variable herbivore compositions.
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder affecting females almost exclusively and is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene have been found in up to 95% of classical RTT cases and a lesser proportion of atypical cases. Recently, mutations in another X-linked gene, CDKL5 (cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5) have been found to cause atypical RTT, in particular the early onset seizure (Hanefeld variant) and one female with autism. In this study we screened several cohorts of children for CDKL5 mutations, totaling 316 patients, including individuals with a clinical diagnosis of RTT but who were negative for MECP2 mutations (n = 102), males with X-linked mental retardation (n = 9), patients with West syndrome (n = 52), patients with autism (n = 59), patients with epileptic encephalopathy (n = 33), patients with Aicardi syndrome (n = 7) and other patients with intellectual disability with or without seizures (n = 54). In all, seven polymorphic variations and four de novo mutations (c.586C>T [p.S196L]; c.58G>C [p.G20R]; c.2504delC [p.P835fs]; deletion of exons 1 - 3) were identified, and in all instances of the latter the clinical phenotype was that of an epileptic encephalopathy. These results suggest that pathogenic CDKL5 mutations are unlikely to be identified in the absence of severe early-onset seizures and highlight the importance of screening for large intragenic and whole gene deletions.
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a 6-month dietary vitamin E (VE) deficiency on DNA methylation and gene expression in rat liver. Two enzymes, 5-α-steroid reductase type 1 (SRD5A1) and the regulatory subunit of γ-glutamylcysteinyl synthetase (GCLM), which are differentially expressed on the mRNA level, were analysed for promoter methylation in putative cytosine-phospho-guanine (CpG) island regions located at the 5′ end using base-specific cleavage and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight MS. A twofold increase in the mRNA level of SRD5A1 gene and a twofold decrease in the mRNA level of GCLM gene in VE-deficient animals were not associated with different CpG methylation of the analysed promoter region. Furthermore, global DNA methylation was not significantly different in these two groups. Thus, the present results indicate that the VE-induced regulation of SRD5A1 and GCLM in rat liver is not directly mediated by changes in promoter DNA methylation.
La vitamine E, l'antioxydant liposoluble le plus important, fut découverte à l'Université de Californie à Berkeley en 1922. Depuis sa découverte, les études sur les tocophérols et les tocotrienols que constitue cette vitamine, ont été centrées pour la plupart sur leurs propriétés antioxydantes. En 1991, le groupe de Angelo Azzi (Boscoboinik et al. 1991a,b) fut le premier à décrire les fonctions autres que les antioxydantes et de transmission de signaux de l'α-tocophérol, en démontrant la régulation par la vitamine E de l'activité de la protéine kinase C dans les cellules de muscle lisse. Au niveau de la transcription, l'²-tocophérol module l'expression de la protéine de transfert hépatique de l'α-tocophérol, ainsi que l'expression du ge`ne alpha1 du collage`ne du foie, du ge`ne de la collagénase et du ge`ne de l'α-tropomyosine. Récemment, un facteur de transcription dépendant du tocophérol (la protéine associée au tocophérol) a été découvert. Il a été démontré sur des cellules cultivées que la vitamine E inhibe l'inflammation, l'adhésion cellulaire, l'agrégation des plaquettes et la prolifération des cellules de muscle lisse. Les avancées récentes de la biologie moléculaire et des techniques génomiques ont conduit à la découverte de nouveaux ge`nes et des mécanismes de transduction des signaux sensibles à la vitamine E.
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