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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Vaginal delivery is typically avoided in extremely preterm breech fetuses due to the concern for head entrapment by the cervix. Development of a device to prevent head entrapment would be best addressed by a multidisciplinary approach incorporating engineering principles with clinical obstetrics. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Construction of a collaborative multidisciplinary team to address the clinical challenge of preventing head entrapment was initiated through a unique course at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Course 2.75, Medical Device Design). The course would provide a structured means by which students (senior undergraduate and graduate students in Mechanical Engineering) would be paired with a clinical advisor and faculty in their department. Weekly team meetings were scheduled to review the clinical context pertinent to the problem and review engineering principles needed to develop a solution. The course also provided a small monetary budget ($4K) for the students to purchase supplies. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: During the semester long course, several iterations of a prototype were designed. Each subsequent rendition was evaluated from both an engineering and manufacturing perspective, as well as clinical appropriateness. The weekly meetings allowed for rapid re-design and assured that all necessary parameters were considered by the entire team. Students also had access to lab facilities and additional mentorship that allowed for supplementary input beyond that generated by core team members. These interactions, along with those of their classmates working on other projects, provided a strong base for exploring subsequent device development. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Successful medical device development requires a collaborative process and students can be ideal members of these teams as they reside in an environment that is conducive to exploration and novel idea generation. Course-based student led team science platforms can provide an excellent foundation for solving uniquely challenging medical problems.
A systematic, objective approach for selecting the most suitable solar energy system in a large and diverse range of applications is presented. The definition of Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) is modified/extended, including a Societal Impact Factor (SIF). The use of the methodology is demonstrated for a specific case. The method can be used for selecting an optimal system configuration and for identifying research and development directions.
A systematic and objective approach for selecting the most suitable solar energy system for a large and diverse range of applications is presented. The main parts of the approach are:
(i) Define the project objectives and fundamental system design requirements.
(ii) Establish a reliable and objective method for determining and comparing energy costs.
(iii) Follow a well-defined methodology for obtaining a configuration that meets the system objectives and complies with all the design requirements, at a minimum energy cost.
These parts are divided into discrete steps, which emphasize meeting the project objective and design requirements. The definition of the main cost comparison metric, the Levelized Energy Cost (LEC), is modified to include the ratio between energy sold and energy production capacity, and a Societal Impact Factor (SIF) for health, environmental, societal, political and cultural aspects.
Application of the method is demonstrated for a specific case—a system whose objective is “providing an extensive and reliable supply of renewable energy, aiming to gradually replace most or all of the fossil fuel combustion in a highly populated region.”
As shown, the process can serve dual purposes, (i) finding the most suitable system configuration and (ii) pointing out vital research and development objectives. The suggested method is also applicable to complex energy conversion configurations, such as hybrid or symbiotic systems.
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