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It is demonstrated that energy-filtered transmission electron microscope enables following of in situ changes of the Ca-L2,3 edge which can originate from variations in both local symmetry and bond lengths. Low accelerating voltages of 20 and 40 kV slow down radiation damage effects and enable study of the start and finish of phase transformations. We observed electron beam-induced phase transformation of single crystalline calcite (CaCO3) to polycrystalline calcium oxide (CaO) which occurs in different stages. The coordination of Ca in calcite is close to an octahedral one streched along the <111> direction. Changes during phase transformation to an octahedral coordination of Ca in CaO go along with a bond length increase by 5 pm, where oxygen is preserved as a binding partner. Electron loss near-edge structure of the Ca-L2,3 edge show four separated peaks, which all shift toward lower energies during phase transformation at the same time the energy level splitting increases. We suggest that these changes can be mainly addressed to the change of the bond length on the order of picometers. An important pre-condition for such studies is stability of the energy drift in the range of meV over at least 1 h, which is achieved with the sub-Ångström low-voltage transmission electron microscope I prototype microscope.
We present and review dopant mapping examples in semiconductor device
structures by electron holography and outline their potential
applications for experimental investigation of two-dimensional (2D)
dopant diffusion on the nanometer scale. We address the technical
challenges of the method when applied to transistor structures with
respect to quantification of the results in terms of the 2D
p–n junction potential and critically review
experimental boundary conditions, accuracy, and potential pitfalls. By
obtaining maps of the inner electrostatic potential before and after
anneals typically used in device processing, we demonstrate how the
“vertical” and “lateral” redistribution of
boron during device fabrication can directly be revealed. Such data can
be compared with the results of process simulation to extract the
fundamental parameters for dopant diffusion in complex device