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High dietary phosphorus (P), particularly soluble salts, may contribute to chronic kidney disease development in cats. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety of P supplied at 1 g/1000 kcal (4184kJ) from a highly soluble P salt in P-rich dry format feline diets. Seventy-five healthy adult cats (n 25/group) were fed either a low P control (1·4 g/1000 kcal [4184kJ]; Ca:P ratio 0·97) or one of two test diets with 4 g/1000 kcal (4184 kJ); Ca:P 1·04 or 5 g/1000 kcal (4184kJ); Ca:P 1·27, both incorporating 1 g/1000 kcal (4184 kJ) sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) – for a period of 30 weeks in a randomised parallel-group study. Health markers in blood and urine, glomerular filtration rate, renal ultrasound and bone density were assessed at baseline and at regular time points. At the end of the test period, responses following transition to a commercial diet (total P – 2·34 g/1000 kcal [4184kJ], Ca:P 1·3) for a 4-week washout period were also assessed. No adverse effects on general, kidney or bone (skeletal) function and health were observed. P and Ca balance, some serum biochemistry parameters and regulatory hormones were increased in cats fed test diets from week 2 onwards (P ≤ 0·05). Data from the washout period suggest that increased serum creatinine and urea values observed in the two test diet groups were influenced by dietary differences during the test period, and not indicative of changes in renal function. The present data suggest no observed adverse effect level for feline diets containing 1 g P/1000 kcal (4184 kJ) from STPP and total P level of up to 5 g/1000 kcal (4184 kJ) when fed for 30 weeks.
This paper discusses Claudine Verheggen's account of what she takes to be Donald Davidson's response to the sceptical paradox about rule-following and meaning developed in Saul Kripke's interpretation of Wittgenstein's ‘rule-following considerations.’ It focusses on questions about the normativity of meaning, the social character of meaning, and the role of triangulation in Davidson's account of the determination of meaning, and invites Verheggen to compare the non-reductionism she finds in Davidson with that developed in Crispin Wright's judgement-dependent account of meaning.
The changing nature of work compels corresponding changes in organization selection systems. In this chapter, we advocate for competency modeling and propose nine competencies that are becoming more instrumental for success in the modern workforce. We then propose predictor constructs and methods to measure these competencies and new ways to leverage technology in their assessment. Lastly, we discuss four challenges that organizations will face when advancing our solutions: (a) achieving buy-in for competency modeling; (b) the continued recognition of a criterion problem; (c) monitoring applicant reactions; and (d) acknowledging social and ethical issues that may arise with these proposed changes.
We seek to understand the incentives facing Congress members to hold executive agencies accountable. Specifically, we explore whether Congress members are rewarded for taking politically costly oversight actions. We evaluate the effect of oversight activities on citizens’ evaluations of Congress members, taking into account the member’s partisanship, the citizen’s partisanship and agency ideology. Using a survey experiment, we find evidence that citizens’ evaluations of members are affected by the members’ oversight activity, with both copartisan and cross-party members rewarded for oversight efforts. Politically costly actions against ally agencies, however, do not appear to be rewarded to a greater extent by copartisans. These results provide insight into the way in which citizens interpret oversight activities by Congress members, suggesting that while good governance actions hold value for citizens, costly oversight actions aimed at ally agencies are not rewarded by copartisan citizens more than politically expedient oversight actions.
Identifying routes of transmission among hospitalized patients during a healthcare-associated outbreak can be tedious, particularly among patients with complex hospital stays and multiple exposures. Data mining of the electronic health record (EHR) has the potential to rapidly identify common exposures among patients suspected of being part of an outbreak.
We retrospectively analyzed 9 hospital outbreaks that occurred during 2011–2016 and that had previously been characterized both according to transmission route and by molecular characterization of the bacterial isolates. We determined (1) the ability of data mining of the EHR to identify the correct route of transmission, (2) how early the correct route was identified during the timeline of the outbreak, and (3) how many cases in the outbreaks could have been prevented had the system been running in real time.
Correct routes were identified for all outbreaks at the second patient, except for one outbreak involving >1 transmission route that was detected at the eighth patient. Up to 40 or 34 infections (78% or 66% of possible preventable infections, respectively) could have been prevented if data mining had been implemented in real time, assuming the initiation of an effective intervention within 7 or 14 days of identification of the transmission route, respectively.
Data mining of the EHR was accurate for identifying routes of transmission among patients who were part of the outbreak. Prospective validation of this approach using routine whole-genome sequencing and data mining of the EHR for both outbreak detection and route attribution is ongoing.
Diverse organisms that swim and fly in the inertial regime use the flapping or pumping of flexible appendages and cavities to propel themselves through a fluid. It has long been postulated that the speed and efficiency of locomotion are optimized by oscillating these appendages at their frequency of free vibration. In jellyfish swimming, a significant contribution to locomotory efficiency has been attributed to the effects passive energy recapture, whereby the bell is passively propelled through the fluid through its interaction with stopping vortex rings formed during each expansion of the bell. In this paper, we investigate the interplay between resonance and passive energy recapture using a three-dimensional implementation of the immersed boundary method to solve the fluid–structure interaction of an elastic oblate jellyfish bell propelling itself through a viscous fluid. The motion is generated through a fixed duration application of active tension to the bell margin, which mimics the action of the coronal swimming muscles. The pulsing frequency is then varied by altering the length of time between the application of applied tension. We find that the swimming speed is maximized when the bell is driven at its resonant frequency. However, the cost of transport is maximized by driving the bell at lower frequencies whereby the jellyfish passively coasts between active contractions through its interaction with the stopping vortex ring. Furthermore, the thrust generated by passive energy recapture was found to be dependent on the elastic properties of the jellyfish bell.
In this chapter, we summarize our current knowledge of the mineralogy, petrography, oxygen-isotope compositions, and trace element abundances of precursors of chondrules and igneous Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), which provide important constraints on the mechanisms of transient heating events in the protoplanetary disk. We infer that porphyritic chondrules, the dominant textural type of chondrules in most chondrite groups, largely formed by incomplete melting of isotopically diverse solid precursors, including refractory inclusions (CAIs and amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs)), fragments of chondrules from earlier generations, and fine-grained matrix-like material during highly-localized transient heating events in dust-rich disk regions characterized by 16O-poor average compositions of dust (Δ17O ~ ‒5‰ to +3‰). These observations preclude formation of the majority of porphyritic chondrules by splashing of differentiated planetesimals; instead, they are consistent with melting of dustballs during localized transient heating events, such as bow shocks and magnetized turbulence in the protoplanetary disk, and, possibly, by collisions between chondritic planetesimals. Like porphyritic chondrules, igneous CAIs formed by incomplete melting of isotopically diverse solid precursors during localized transient heating events. These precursors, however, consisted exclusively of refractory inclusions, and the melting occurred in an 16O-rich gas (Δ17O ~ ‒24‰) of approximately solar composition, most likely near the protosun. The U-corrected Pb–Pb absolute and Al–Mg relative chronologies of igneous CAIs in CV chondrites indicate that these melting events started contemporaneously with condensation of CAI precursors (4567.3 ± 0.16 Ma) and lasted up to 0.3 Ma, providing evidence for the earliest transient heating events capable of melting refractory dustballs in the innermost part of the disk. There is no evidence that chondrules were among the precursors of igneous CAIs, which is consistent with an age gap between CAIs and chondrules. In contrast to typical (non–metal-rich) chondrites, the CB metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites contain exclusively magnesian nonporphyritic chondrules formed during a single-stage event ~5 Ma after CV CAIs, most likely in an impact-generated gas–melt plume. Bulk chemical compositions of CB chondrules and equilibrium thermodynamic calculations suggest that at least one of the colliding bodies was differentiated. The uniformly 16O-depleted igneous CAIs in CB chondrites most likely formed by complete melting of preexisting refractory inclusions that was accompanied by gas–melt interaction in the plume. CH metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites represent a mixture of the CB-like materials (magnesian skeletal olivine and cryptocrystalline chondrules and uniformly 16O-depleted igneous CAIs) formed in an impact plume and the typical chondritic materials (magnesian, ferroan, and Al-rich porphyritic chondrules, uniformly 16O-rich CAIs, and chondritic lithic clasts) that appear to have largely predated the impact plume event. We conclude that there are multiple mechanisms of transient heating events that operated in the protoplanetary disk during its entire lifetime and resulted in formation of chondrules and igneous CAIs.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) traditionally has kept confidential significant amounts of information relevant to the approval or non-approval of specific drugs, devices, and biologics and about the regulatory status of such medical products in FDA’s pipeline.
To develop practical recommendations for FDA to improve its transparency to the public that FDA could implement by rulemaking or other regulatory processes without further congressional authorization. These recommendations would build on the work of FDA’s Transparency Task Force in 2010.
In 2016-2017, we convened a team of academic faculty from Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Yale Medical School, Yale Law School, and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health to develop recommendations through an iterative process of reviewing FDA’s practices, considering the legal and policy constraints on FDA in expanding transparency, and obtaining insights from independent observers of FDA.
The team developed 18 specific recommendations for improving FDA’s transparency to the public. FDA could adopt all these recommendations without further congressional action.
The development of the Blueprint for Transparency at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration was funded by the Laura and John Arnold Foundation.
We investigate when a computable automorphism of a computable field can be effectively extended to a computable automorphism of its (computable) algebraic closure. We then apply our results and techniques to study effective embeddings of computable difference fields into computable difference closed fields.
In many swimming and flying animals, propulsion emerges from the interplay of active muscle contraction, passive body elasticity and fluid–body interaction. Changes in the active and passive body properties can influence performance and cost of transport across a broad range of scales; they specifically affect the vortex generation that is crucial for effective swimming at higher Reynolds numbers. Theoretical models that account for both active contraction and passive elasticity are needed to understand how animals tune both their active and passive properties to move efficiently through fluids. This is particularly significant when one considers the phylogenetic constraints on the jellyfish mechanospace, such as the presence of relatively weak muscles that are only one cell layer thick. In this work, we develop an actively deforming model of a jellyfish immersed in a viscous fluid and use numerical simulations to study the role of active muscle contraction, passive body elasticity and fluid forces in the medusan mechanospace. By varying the strength of contraction and the flexibility of the bell margin, we quantify how these active and passive properties affect swimming speed and cost of transport. We find that for fixed bell elasticity, swimming speed increases with the strength of contraction. For fixed force of contractility, swimming speed increases as margin elasticity decreases. Varying the strength of activation in proportion to the elasticity of the bell margin yields similar swimming speeds, with a cost of transport is substantially reduced for more flexible margins. A scaling study reveals that performance declines as the Reynolds number decreases. Circulation analysis of the starting and stopping vortex rings showed that their strengths were dependent on the relative strength of activation with respect to the bell margin flexibility. This work yields a computational framework for developing a quantitative understanding of the roles of active and passive body properties in swimming.
Our main result is the equivalence of two notions of reducibility between
structures. One is a syntactical notion which is an effective version of
interpretability as in model theory, and the other one is a computational notion
which is a strengthening of the well-known Medvedev reducibility. We extend our
result to effective bi-interpretability and also to effective reductions between
classes of structures.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
The indigenous Christian population of the West Bank is a shrinking, historically fragmented community whose contribution to civil society outweighs its small size. The theme of this essay is these Christians’ unique contribution in a context that nevertheless seems set to squeeze them increasingly out of their homeland. We say “squeeze,” as the major sources of pressure arise from two directions, both Jewish and Muslim. From the Jewish side, the challenge arises from the consequences of the Israeli occupation of the West Bank. From the Muslim side, the challenge arises from the growing influence of the radical Islamic movements. Corruption within the Palestinian Authority (PA) also appears to have created an economic and social situation in the country that many Palestinian Christians refuse to tolerate, choosing instead to vote with their feet.
Much has been written on this topic, and it is not our purpose to provide a synthesis of the secondary literature. Within the framework of Georgetown's Christianity and Freedom Project, our mandate is to provide fresh fieldwork on the current situation, situated within a broader grasp of the contemporary scenario.
As such, the paper is set out as follows: A brief introduction by Phil Sumpter will provide the historical, social, and political context. The next section, authored by Duane Miller, will describe the findings of our fieldwork, which is the prime focus of this essay. This fieldwork is based on a two-week sojourn in the West Bank, where we interviewed representatives of the various traditional churches about the challenges their communities face and the responses that are being provided. In both sections, the authors have been in dialogue with one another so that our ideas have been mutually influential.
OVERVIEW: INDIGENOUS CHRISTIANITY IN THE CONTEMPORARY WEST BANK
The decisive event that has shaped the contemporary context is the war of 1948, called the War of Independence by (Jewish) Israelis and the Catastrophe (al Nakba) by Palestinians. In short, the General Assembly of the United Nations had adopted a proposal for the political future of the region in 1947, which envisioned the existence of two states side by side, an Arab state and a Jewish one (the Jews were to receive some 55 percent of the country [much of the allotted area being desert] and the Arabs about 40 percent).
Inverse associations between dairy consumption and CVD have been reported in several epidemiological studies. Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies of dairy intake and CVD. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify studies that reported risk estimates for total dairy intake, individual dairy products, low/full-fat dairy intake, Ca from dairy sources and CVD, CHD and stroke. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to generate summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) for high v. low intake and stratified intake dose–response analyses. Additional dose–response analyses were performed. Heterogeneity was examined in sub-group and sensitivity analyses. In total, thirty-one unique cohort studies were identified and included in the meta-analysis. Several statistically significant SRRE below 1.0 were observed, namely for total dairy intake and stroke (SRRE=0·91; 95 % CI 0·83, 0·99), cheese intake and CHD (SRRE=0·82; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·93) and stroke (SRRE=0·87; 95 % CI 0·77, 0·99), and Ca from dairy sources and stroke (SRRE=0·69; 95 % CI 0·60, 0·81). However, there was little evidence for inverse dose–response relationships between the dairy variables and CHD and stroke after adjusting for within-study covariance. The results of this meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies have shown that dairy consumption may be associated with reduced risks of CVD, although additional data are needed to more comprehensively examine potential dose–response patterns.