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The ethical and political writings by late medieval
Jewish philosophers are generally seen to be rooted
in two fundamental classical texts, Aristotle's
and Plato's Republic.
Yet, regarding the Republic, medieval Jewish thinkers
likely had no direct access to it. It was Samuel ben
Judah of Marseilles's translation of Averroes's
Commentary on Plato's
“Republic” into Hebrew in the 1320s that
gave Hebrew readers some access to the Republic and made it the
central classical text on political philosophy for
Jewish thought. Indeed, it was used by Jewish
thinkers for several hundred years thereafter. This
chapter will focus on the question of how Plato's
Republic came to
influence medieval Jewish thought; in doing so, it
will attempt to map out three distinct trends in how
Jewish thinkers of the medieval period interpreted
the Republic's core
Samuel Ben Judah of Marseilles and the Translation into
The introduction of Plato's Republic into Jewish discussions on the
nature of the political community took place after
Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles's translation of
Averroes's Commentary on
Plato's “Republic” from Arabic into
Hebrew was completed in 1320 and revised in 1321 and
1322. Samuel came from an established family in
Provence that had acquired wealth over multiple
generations. He studied philosophy with Senor (Don)
Astruc de Noves and translated works on logic and
astronomy. The movement of translating the great
works of science and secular philosophy from Arabic
into Hebrew, which had been started in Provence by
Samuel ibn Tibbon (ca. 1165−1232) in the first
decades of the thirteenth century and been
furthered, in large part, by his son, Moses ibn
Tibbon (ca. 1195−1274), his son-in-law, Jacob
Anatoli (1194−1256), and his grandson, Jacob b.
Makhir (ca. 1236−1304), was gradually coming to an
end after the prodigious activity of Qalonimos ben
Qalonimos (ca. 1286−1328) in the first decades of
the fourteenth century. It had already begun to
transform Judaism into what some have termed a
philosophic religion. The deficiency in this model
of philosophic religion is that it was overly
focused on natural science and mostly ignored
Roads affect wildlife in a variety of negative ways. Road ecology studies have mostly concentrated on areas in the northern hemisphere despite the potentially greater impact of roads on biodiversity in tropical habitats. Here, we examine 4 years (January 2016–December 2019) of opportunistic observations of mammalian roadkill along a road intersecting Jozani-Chwaka Bay National Park, Unguja, Zanzibar. In particular, we assess the impact of collisions on the population of an endemic primate, the Endangered Zanzibar red colobus Piliocolobus kirkii. Primates accounted for the majority of roadkill in this dataset. Monthly rainfall was not associated with roadkill frequency for mammals generally, nor for the Zanzibar red colobus. No single age–sex class of colobus was found dead more often than expected given their occurrence in the local population. The overall effect of roadkill on colobus populations in habitats fragmented by roads is unknown given the lack of accurate, long-term life history data for this species. Our findings suggest that mortality from collisions with vehicles in some groups of colobus is within the range of mortality rates other primates experience under natural predation. Unlike natural predators, however, vehicles do not kill selectively, so their impact on populations may differ. Although a comparison with historical accounts suggests that the installation of speedbumps along the road near the Park's entrance has led to a significant decrease in colobus roadkill, further actions to mitigate the impact of the road could bring substantial conservation benefits.
Disarticulated human remains were recovered from a first-century fort ditch at Vindolanda on the north-west frontier of the Roman Empire. Ancient DNA analysis revealed the skeleton to be that of a male individual and forensic taphonomic analysis suggested a primary deposition of the body in a waterlogged environment with no obvious evidence of formal burial. Occurrences of disarticulated human remains outside a cemetery context are often overlooked in Roman bioarchaeology. This discovery adds to the growing body of literature regarding alternative funerary practice in the Empire, highlighting that the concept of burial and disposal of the dead is more complex than ancient historical sources suggest. Details of the DNA analysis are provided in the Supplementary Material available at https://doi.org/10.1017/S0068113X1900014X.
Using dual-entitlement theory as the guide, we conducted a survey of economists from the National Bureau of Economic Research asking them a series of questions about the fairness of drug prices in the United States. Public opinion surveys have repeatedly shown that the public perceives drug prices to be unfair, but economists trained in laws of supply and demand may have different perceptions. Three hundred and ten senior economists responded to our survey. Forty-five percent agreed that drug prices were unfair when people, specifically low-income individuals, could not afford their prescription medications. Sixty-five percent oppose a dollar threshold, or upper limit, on drug prices. The economists recommend the most promising policy change would be to provide the government additional negotiating power and price controls would moderately impact investment in pharmaceutical research and development.
Missing outcome data plague many randomized experiments. Common solutions rely on ignorability assumptions that may not be credible in all applications. We propose a method for confronting missing outcome data that makes fairly weak assumptions but can still yield informative bounds on the average treatment effect. Our approach is based on a combination of the double sampling design and nonparametric worst-case bounds. We derive a worst-case bounds estimator under double sampling and provide analytic expressions for variance estimators and confidence intervals. We also propose a method for covariate adjustment using poststratification and a sensitivity analysis for nonignorable missingness. Finally, we illustrate the utility of our approach using Monte Carlo simulations and a placebo-controlled randomized field experiment on the effects of persuasion on social attitudes with survey-based outcome measures.
To determine the source of a healthcare-associated outbreak of Pantoea agglomerans bloodstream infections.
Epidemiologic investigation of the outbreak.
Oncology clinic (clinic A).
Cases were defined as Pantoea isolation from blood or catheter tip cultures of clinic A patients during July 2012–May 2013. Clinic A medical charts and laboratory records were reviewed; infection prevention practices and the facility’s water system were evaluated. Environmental samples were collected for culture. Clinical and environmental P. agglomerans isolates were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
Twelve cases were identified; median (range) age was 65 (41–78) years. All patients had malignant tumors and had received infusions at clinic A. Deficiencies in parenteral medication preparation and handling were identified (eg, placing infusates near sinks with potential for splash-back contamination). Facility inspection revealed substantial dead-end water piping and inadequate chlorine residual in tap water from multiple sinks, including the pharmacy clean room sink. P. agglomerans was isolated from composite surface swabs of 7 sinks and an ice machine; the pharmacy clean room sink isolate was indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis from 7 of 9 available patient isolates.
Exposure of locally prepared infusates to a contaminated pharmacy sink caused the outbreak. Improvements in parenteral medication preparation, including moving chemotherapy preparation offsite, along with terminal sink cleaning and water system remediation ended the outbreak. Greater awareness of recommended medication preparation and handling practices as well as further efforts to better define the contribution of contaminated sinks and plumbing deficiencies to healthcare-associated infections are needed.
The most recent work at Vindolanda has produced some startling results which both support and challenge our standing interpretations of some aspects of the frontier zone in Roman Britain. These include the timeline for the development of forts on the frontier, the foundation of extramural settlements and the relationship between fort and extramural settlement. The work raises questions not only about Vindolanda but more generally about the formation of the frontier itself and the interpretation of the archaeology of other sites.
A small but growing social science literature examines the correspondence between experimental results obtained in lab and field settings. This article reviews this literature and reanalyzes a set of recent experiments carried out in parallel in both the lab and field. Using a standardized format that calls attention to both the experimental estimates and the statistical uncertainty surrounding them, the study analyzes the overall pattern of lab-field correspondence, which is found to be quite strong (Spearman's ρ = 0.73). Recognizing that this correlation may be distorted by the ad hoc manner in which lab-field comparisons are constructed (as well as the selective manner in which results are reported and published), the article concludes by suggesting directions for future research, stressing in particular the need for more systematic investigation of treatment effect heterogeneity.
Many archaeological sites along coastlines and rivers contain large quantities of marine and riverine bivalve shell. Often shell is the only datable organic material available to determine radiocarbon age estimates of features and to build regional chronologies. Shell is difficult to date accurately because of reservoir effects, and archaeologists have avoided it despite its abundance. If reservoir effects are understood, shell can provide accurate radiocarbon age estimates. This report provides an example using regression relations computed from radiocarbon assays of paired shelll charcoal samples from archaeological sites along the middle and lower Snake River, Northwestern North America.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease for which there are no disease-modifying drugs. It is a leading cause of disability in the UK. Increasing age and obesity are both major risk factors for OA and the health and economic burden of this disease will increase in the future. Focusing on compounds from the habitual diet that may prevent the onset or slow the progression of OA is a strategy that has been under-investigated to date. An approach that relies on dietary modification is clearly attractive in terms of risk/benefit and more likely to be implementable at the population level. However, before undertaking a full clinical trial to examine potential efficacy, detailed molecular studies are required in order to optimise the design. This review focuses on potential dietary factors that may reduce the risk or progression of OA, including micronutrients, fatty acids, flavonoids and other phytochemicals. It therefore ignores data coming from classical inflammatory arthritides and nutraceuticals such as glucosamine and chondroitin. In conclusion, diet offers a route by which the health of the joint can be protected and OA incidence or progression decreased. In a chronic disease, with risk factors increasing in the population and with no pharmaceutical cure, an understanding of this will be crucial.
A new scaling parameter is developed for the circulation shed by a rigid, rectangular panel pitching periodically about its leading edge. This parameter is the product of a kinematic and a geometric component. The kinematic component describes the relationship between the mean vorticity flux from the panel surface and the panel motion. The geometric component depends on the ratio of pitching amplitude to the span of the panel. The kinematic component is developed based on the connection between the surface pressure distribution and the resulting surface vorticity flux, which are supported in a stroke-averaged sense by pressure measurements on the surface of the panel. The parameter gives a robust scaling for the total spanwise circulation shed in a half-cycle by the panel. It provides a useful predictive tool, in that it can be either complementary to the formation number or provide an alternative scaling parameter when vortex saturation and pinch-off do not occur.
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to investigate the three-dimensional wakes of rigid pitching panels with a trapezoidal geometry, chosen to model idealized fish caudal fins. Experiments are performed for Strouhal numbers from 0.17 to 0.56 for two different trailing edge pitching amplitudes. A Lagrangian coherent structure (LCS) analysis is employed to investigate the formation and evolution of the panel wake. A classic reverse von Kármán vortex street pattern is observed along the mid-span of the near wake, but the vortices realign and exhibit strong interactions near the spanwise edges of the wake. At higher Strouhal numbers, the complexity of the wake increases downstream of the trailing edge as the spanwise vortices spread transversely and lose coherence as the wake splits. This wake transition is shown to correspond to a qualitative change in the LCS pattern surrounding each vortex core, and can be identified as a quantitative event that is not dependent on arbitrary threshold levels. The location of this transition is observed to depend on both the pitching amplitude and free stream velocity, but is not constant for a fixed Strouhal number. On the panel surface, the trapezoidal planform geometry is observed to create additional vortices along the swept edges that retain coherence for low Strouhal numbers or high sweep angles. These additional swept-edge structures are conjectured to add to the complex three-dimensional flow near the tips of the panel.