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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The goal of this study is to investigate the potential independent relationship between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and cardiometabolic health in youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) and explore changes in EAT as a potential mediator of changes in cardiometabolic health in response to vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We will assess glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and secretion in youth with T2D before and 3 months after VSG. Fasting labs, anthropometrics, and a 4-hour, frequently sampled liquid mixed meal tolerance test (45g carbohydrates, 14g fat, and 14g protein) were performed. Calculations included glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 area under the curve (AUC), Matsuda Index, HOMA-IR, and oral disposition index (DI). These cardiometabolic outcomes will then be assessed for associations between total EAT volume, measured from cardiac MRI. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Previous studies have shown that individuals with obesity have higher EAT than lean controls, and adults with T2D have even higher EAT than obese controls. Therefore, we anticipate that our participants will have higher volume of EAT than what has been reported in the literature and that they will have worsening cardiometabolic outcomes without MBS. Our anticipated results will include: Weight and BMI, hemoglobin A1c, diabetes medications, Matsuda Index, HOMA-IR, DI, and glucose and insulin AUC during an MMTT. Cardiac MRI's are being analyzed and will give total EAT volume and will be analyzed for correlations with the cardiometabolic outcomes of body composition, aortic stiffness, blood pressure, cardiac structure and function, as well as lipid panel and insulin sensitivity. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to specifically assess EAT in adolescents with T2D. The assessment of EAT will be done with gold-standard MRI and correlated with cardiometabolic health assessed by gold-standard methods. Together, the results will give insight into EAT as a potential independent cardiometabolic risk factor in adolescents undergoing VSG.
Sex-related differences in psychopathology are known phenomena, with externalizing and internalizing symptoms typically more common in boys and girls, respectively. However, the neural correlates of these sex-by-psychopathology interactions are underinvestigated, particularly in adolescence.
Participants were 14 years of age and part of the IMAGEN study, a large (N = 1526) community-based sample. To test for sex-by-psychopathology interactions in structural grey matter volume (GMV), we used whole-brain, voxel-wise neuroimaging analyses based on robust non-parametric methods. Psychopathological symptom data were derived from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ).
We found a sex-by-hyperactivity/inattention interaction in four brain clusters: right temporoparietal-opercular region (p < 0.01, Cohen's d = −0.24), bilateral anterior and mid-cingulum (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = −0.18), right cerebellum and fusiform (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = −0.20) and left frontal superior and middle gyri (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = −0.26). Higher symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention were associated with lower GMV in all four brain clusters in boys, and with higher GMV in the temporoparietal-opercular and cerebellar-fusiform clusters in girls.
Using a large, sex-balanced and community-based sample, our study lends support to the idea that externalizing symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention may be associated with different neural structures in male and female adolescents. The brain regions we report have been associated with a myriad of important cognitive functions, in particular, attention, cognitive and motor control, and timing, that are potentially relevant to understand the behavioural manifestations of hyperactive and inattentive symptoms. This study highlights the importance of considering sex in our efforts to uncover mechanisms underlying psychopathology during adolescence.
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