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Moving from an approach oriented to adaptation and functioning, the current paper explored the network of cumulative associations between the effects of the siege and resilience on mental health.
We sought to explore the impact of the siege on psychological distress (anxiety, depression, and stress) and the moderating effect of resilience and hopelessness in a sample of 550 Palestinian university students. We hypothesized that the siege effect would impact psychological distress so that the more people were affected by the siege, the more mental symptoms of common mental disorders they would report. We also expected that the siege would negatively impact both resilience and participants' hopelessness.
Findings showed that higher scores on the scale measuring effect of the siege were associated with hopelessness. Furthermore, living under siege compromised participants’ resilience. The more the siege affected individuals, the lower resilience were protecting participants mental health and the more hopelessness was exposing them to anxiety, stress, and depression.
Our findings draw attention to how the ongoing violation of human rights influences people's mental health in Gaza. Implications for clinicians and policymakers are discussed.
Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of the connective tissue, whose cardinal features affect eyes, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular system. Despite prevalence and natural history of cardiovascular manifestation are well known in adults, little is known about children and young adult patients. The aim of this study was to describe a well-characterised cohort of consecutive children and young patients with marfan syndrome, looking at the impact of family history and presence of bicuspid aortic valve on disease severity.
A total of 30 consecutive children and young patients with Marfan syndrome were evaluated. All patients underwent a comprehensive clinical–instrumental–genetic evaluation. Particular attention was posed to identify differences in prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities between patients with and without family history of Marfan syndrome or bicuspid aortic valve.
Of these 30 patients, family history of Marfan syndrome and bicuspid aortic valve were present in 76 and 13%, respectively. Compared to patients with family history of Marfan syndrome, those without showed higher prevalence of aortic sinus dilation (87 versus 32%, p-value = 0.009), greater aortic sinus diameters (4.2 ± 2.1 versus 1.9 ± 1.1 z score, p-value = 0.002), and higher rate of aortic surgery during follow-up (37 versus 0%, p-value = 0.002). Compared to patients with tricuspid aortic valve, those with bicuspid aortic valve were younger (3.2 ± 4.3 versus 10.7 ± 6.8 years old, p-value = 0.043), showed greater aortic sinus diameters (4.2 ± 0.9 versus 2.2 ± 1.6 z score, p-value = 0.033), and underwent more frequently aortic root replacement (50 versus 4%, p-value = 0.004).
In our cohort of patients with Marfan syndrome, the absence of family history and the presence of bicuspid aortic valve were associated to severe aortic phenotype and worse prognosis.
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