The purpose of this study is to describe a new decapod crustacean from the Profeti region, Italy, and to interpret its palaeontological significance. Further, we include a taxonomic summary of fossil carideans. Macruran decapod crustaceans of Profeti occur flattened on bedding plane surfaces of light-brown lithographic limestone. Surrounding rock is poorly lithified, making preparation easy. The material examined, housed in the Geology Department of the University of Naples, consists of 53 specimens ascribed to Palaemon antonellae n. sp. (Infraorder Caridea Dana, 1852; family Palaemonidae Rafinesque, 1815). All specimens are exuviae, with thin and fragile carapaces and abdomens and fragmentary bodies and appendages.